Introduction : Many studies on motor development in young children have been done using quantitative data obtained from motor performance tests. To understand motor development in young children, the development of the actual motor pattern producing the performance should be investigated and evaluated. The purposes of this study were to examine the development of seven different fundamental motor patterns (patterns of running, jumping, throwing, catching, ball bouncing, forward rolling, and moving on a balance beam) using an observational evaluation method, and to compare the acquisition situations of the fundamental motor patterns of young children in the recent year and in 1985. Method : The subjects were 154children (81boys and 73girls) from three to five years of age in 2007, and 123children (59boys and 64girls) in 1985. Their fundamental movements were recorded by video camera and evaluated by an observational method using five typical developmental stages of the motor patterns in each movement. Based on the results of analysis of these seven fundamental motor patterns, an index to understand the development of fundamental movement in early childhood overall was established as a “motor pattern development score”. Results : It was shown that the motor patterns of the seven fundamental movements in recent young children remained at an immature movement development stage, such as pattern 1 and pattern 2. A significant increase was seen with age in both the individual motor pattern scores for the seven movements and the motor pattern development score. Moreover, it was shown that the motor pattern scores of resent young children were below the scores of young children in 1985 in the seven kinds of movements in both boys and girls. Conclusion : The results of this study, showed that the acquisition of the fundamental motor patterns in resent young children was at a lower developmental stage than that of young children in 1985. It was also shown that the acquisition of fundamental movements in resent five-years-olds was similar to that of three-years-olds in 1985.
This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of changes in floating-toes one year later in 300 preschool children (161 boys and 139 girls) based on longitudinal data (2008 and 2009). The presence of floating-toes was determined from pictures of the subjects’soles on the contact surface area. Although a significant change was not found in the ratio of children with floating-toes, the number of floating-toes was significantly fewer. A change in the number of floating-toes in children with floating-toes was divided into 3 groups, those that decreased, increased, or did not change. The number of children corresponding to each group was significantly greater in the order of “Decrease”, “No change”, and “Increase” groups for boys. In girls, the “Decrease” and “No change” groups were larger than the “Increase” group. The ratio of children that had fewer floating-toes one year later for each number of floating-toes tended to be higher in children with more floating-toes in both boys and girls. In conclusion, although the ratio of children with floating-toes hardly changes after one year, the number of floating-toes in children with floating-toes tends to decrease and this tendency is more marked in children with more floating-toes.
The purpose of this study was to chase the influence that increase of the number of class hours gave to the physical fitness improvement of the junior high student using longitudinal data for a long term. The program was held among approximately 338 junior high school students through all grades students who came from in asahi-shi of Chiba prefecture. In order to verify the effectiveness of this research, 8 different physical fitness tests, and the primary results were as indicated below. Comparing between the first and the third grader, the third grader's physical fitness test total score shows twice than first graders. Moreover, a significant difference was witnessed through all these results (p<.05). Comparing among the first and the third student's physical fitness tests, the evaluation was twice among them. As for boys, High evaluation increased, and low evaluation decreased. The experimental group has been increased by physical fitness more than by the maturity. In the experimental group of the boy, it was effective by a physical fitness improvement program. Furthermore, a significant difference was witnessed through all these results (p<.05). As for girls, a significant difference witnessed by the control group, and low evaluation decreased. Furthermore, the physical fitness total score of the experimental group increased in annual. There was no difference in the physical fitness test evaluation between first grader and third grader. There was an increase by the maturity. But the increase due to raised (maturity) did not indicate physical fitness test evaluation. While in the control group was increased, low physical fitness test evaluation. As a result, this physical fitness improvement program, and the experimental group of the girl were able to restrain the down of the physical fitness.
This study aimed to examine the relationships between objectively measured daily physical activity (PA) and perceived neighborhood environment among Japanese preschool children. The relationships between PA and mental factors (e.g. unidentified complaints) were also examined. PA was assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (ActivTracer, GMS) for 6 consecutive days, including weekdays and weekends, in 361 four- to six-year-old Japanese children attending kindergartens or nursery schools. Neighborhood environment and mental factors were evaluated by a questionnaire. Data were collected between 2006 and 2008. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL) were 99 (±30) min/day and 1.54 (±0.08), respectively. Relationships between MVPA and crime safety and nature in neighborhood were significant after adjustment for age, sex, body height and weight. Presence of hills was significantly associated with less time in PAR (physical activity ratio)≥4. On the other hand, relationships between the amount of time in 2>=PAR<3 and fatigue and between the amount of time in PAR<2 or 2>=PAR<3 and motion sickness were significant. The findings indicate that MVPA or PAR≥4 and sedentary or light activity in the preschool children are associated with some neighborhood environment attributes or unidentified complaints, respectively.
The growth status of children is influenced by many factors, and especially differences in ethnic groups has a large. If possible, it would be ideal to evaluate children's growth and nutrition based on growth standards specific to their particular ethnic group. We present the result of our scientific research in Myanmar and Thailand ; Growth Standards for Children's Weight of 12 Ethnic Groups in Myanmar and Thailand. This research was carried out as part of two large-scale research development projects : Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's “International Cooperation Initiative” and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science's “Asia and Africa Science Platform Program”. With this project, we selected 12 major ethnic groups, Akha, Chin Ho, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, Lisu, Thai, in Thailand and Burmese, Kayin, Mon, Paoh, and Shan in Myanmar, in the two countries and succeeded in creating standards specific to each group. To purpose of this paper, we used the LMS method. The LMS method and maximum penalized likelihood estimation yielded percentiles in terms of three age-sex-specific curves. For each age group and sex, age was assigned to the x-axis and standardized weight values to the y-axis, giving the growth curves in Figures 2∼19. As always, physical growth research is a response to a practical need such as the one demonstrated here, and is indispensable to both international cooperation, and international and humanitarian aid activities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of physical fitness, lifestyle, and appearance of unidentified complaints in young children exhibiting hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. [Method] The subjects of this study were 628 young children. We analyzed 21 items related to children's behavior, lifestyle, and unidentified complaints, and 5 physical fitness items. We used these items to compare normal young children and young children exhibiting hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. [Results and Discussion] The proportion of young children exhibiting hyperactivity and impulsive behavior was slightly larger than that in the preceding research. From the results, it seems that a considerable number of children who were not medically diagnosed exhibited hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. In addition, it was confirmed that the lifestyle of these young children was significantly unhealthier than that of normal young children. We think that young children need assistance in order to ensure both appropriate behavior and lifestyle. It is necessary to examine the influence of these behavior and lifestyle upon physical fitness in older children.
Child care workers and guardians often ask. “What is the ideal degree of physical development in young children?” However, the report concerning the degree of development and a criterion index for the young children is rather limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of the degree of development for a year throughout the years during which the physical fitness of the children was observed on the basis of follow-up data (three-years observation period ; children between ages three to five). Additionally, a criterion based on the degree of development was prepared. The subjects of this study were 613 young children (boys : 308 ; girls : 305) with standard physiques. We administered physical tests comprising seven types of exercises (grip strength, standing long jump, softball throw, 25-meter run, side-step, upright hand standing time, and sitting trunk flexion) in order to understand the characteristics of the children's physical fitness ; the tests were conducted every November for three years for children between ages three to five. The degree of development for a year, that is, from age three to four (D3-4) and age four to five (D4-5) was used for the analysis. To conduct a statistical analysis of the data, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, a two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons (Tukey's HSD test) were employed. The analysis revealed that D3-4 and D4-5 were not highly relative in all tests (boys : −0.400∼−0.002 ; girls : −0.410∼−0.092). Additionally, all had negative correlation coefficients. This suggests that there was no guarantee that more development was observed in D4-5 even when a high degree of development was observed in D3-4. The physical activity custom of promoting development is necessary in any age level. The consequence of ANOVA indicated that D3-4 is larger than D4-5 in significance with regard to the 25-meter run, side-step, and standing long jump. On the other hand, D4-5 is larger than D3-4 in grip strength, softball throw, and upright hand standing time. These results were identical for both the boys and girls. A significant difference was not admitted in sitting trunk flexion.
The Body Proportion Chart clearly demonstrated the trend of growth of stature, sitting height, lower limb length and lower segment-upper segment ratio (LUR), and also the sex differences in the respective dimension and ratio. The Body Proportion Chart (BPC) should be a good tool for analyzing body growth during children and adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to make clear the relationship between body temperature and lifestyle in elementary school children. The subjects were comprised of 79 boys and 102 girls in children from third to fifth grader. The investigation was carried out by the measurement of body temperature and questionnaire of lifestyle from November to December 2008 and the same period 2009. The body temperature was measured in an axilla for 10 minutes. The questionnaire was composed the sleep onset time, the getting up time, the TV hour, the game hour, the internet/mobile telephone hour, the exercise hour, the learning hour, the evacuation situation and the breakfast intake situation. The main findings were as follows : 1) The issue of low body temperature tendency worried about since 1980s was not still solved. However, about 20% of all measured values was more than 37.0°C. 2) The group of low body temperature which was less than 36.0°C at the time of getting up showed a low temperature level through day. 3) The group of high body temperature which was more than 37.0°C at the time of getting up showed a flat temperature change through day. 4) The relationship between temperature and lifestyle in girls was not clarified. On the other hand, it was shown that the internet/mobile telephone hour was long, the sleep onset time was late and the sleep hour was short in low body temperature group of boys.
A fixed-alternative questionnaire method and daily pedometer steps survey was conducted to 1,346 Japanese children from Yamagata, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kyoto, Fukui, Hyogo, Ehime, and Okinawa Prefectures. Omron Health Care HJ-151-K pedometer was used throughout this fieldwork. Descriptive statistics for pedometer data indicated significant difference between weekdays and weekends. Whereas averages of weekday steps were ranged form 10,000 to 13,000, standard deviations were ranged from 4,000 to 6,000, mean weekend steps were approximately 8,000±4,500. Aging effect and gender difference for daily pedometer steps were recognized. While boys' average steps were 9,683 for preschool children, 13,748 for Grade1-2, 14,145 for Grade3-4, and 11,681 for Grade5-6, girls' averages were 8,837 for preschool children, 11,624 for Grade1-2, 10,575 for Grade3-4, and 9,864 for Grade5-6. However children who participate in organized sports activity accumulate about 1,500 more daily steps that those children who do not participate in these types, this critical effect of organized sports participation was not clarified by controlling grade and sex.