The purposes of this study were to investigate the overhand ball throw form considering the motion causality based on the collecting check points of previous studies and to apply the model to the throw form of elementary school children. The cause and effect analysis, one of the quality control methods, was applied to investigate the causal throwing motion. The motion was consisted from main two parts, rotational motion combined with the center of gravity movement and body axis twist-rotation including hand whip action. The twist and rotation motion preceded the whipping motion of throwing arms/hands, which was composed with throwing arm/hand motion and free arm/hand operation. Overhand tennis ball throw forms of 63 elementary school children(37 boys and 27 girls, 1-4 grade)were recorded on a video camera with 60 flames/sec. Based on the causal throw form, 54motions were observed by the video play. As the result of the principal component analysis, since the eigenvalue was 23.894and the contribution rate was 44.2%, the first component suggested the overhand throw form including both of detail motions and total evaluations. There were 7 variables with low loading(<0.3), which were verified for their cause and improvement.
Attempts were made through classes of physical education to verify the effectiveness of our learning program of long distance running, which mainly focuses on“even pace”running, for the lower record group from the perspective of changes in their records of and attitudes toward long distance running.
Our subjects were 1435 of 7th graders（boys 714, girls 721）in Tokyo.
We instructed them in every Oct.―Dec. period during 1999-2005 utilizing the program（15 instructions of physical education), that we developed.
Each subject records（boys 1500 m run, girls 1000 m run）was applied to 10 grades in MEXT standard scale.
When the subjectʼs score was grades 1-3 for boys and 1-4 for girls, it allocated to the low group.
We conducted surveys on the changes of attitudes on long distance running and practice of this program through formative evaluation of instructions.
We compared records and formative evaluation of instructions before and after the program.
The results are as follows：
Lower records group increased to 5.9％ from 22.8％（boys）and to 1.5％ from 9.2％（girls).
83.4％ of the boys and 87.1％ of the girls in lower records group improved in scale.
The average of 1500 m run in boys lower records group significantlly improved to 7ʼ13”from 8ʼ9”.
The average of 1000 m run in girls lower records group significantlly improved to 4ʼ57”from 5ʼ38”.
Attitudes of the subjects became significantlly favorable in 27 out of 29 question items.
Improvement of abhorring feeling, decrease of pain, increase of satisfaction appeared remarkably.
All of 4 factors of enjoy, activity results, social behavior, friendship were improved significantly.
A program in physical education“learning of even pace on long distance running”utilized in this research was verified effective for lower records group.
This study evaluates the agility of preschool children by measuring simple reaction time and repeated sideways jumps. It also examines the influence of video games and exercise on development of the agility. The subjects were 636 preschool children(315 boys and 321 girls)aged 4 to 5. They performed the simple reaction time test with light stimulation and the repeated sideways jump test for five seconds. The agility score was calculated from the total T-score of both agility tests. This study investigates video games and preferred play time for the benefit of parents and nursery school teachers. The test results show that 37.6% of the 4-year-olds and 36.5% of the 5-year-olds frequently played video games and 57.1% of the 4-year-olds and 61.0% of the 5-year-olds showed a predilection for whole-body dynamic play(tag, jump-rope, dodge ball, etc.). The 5-year-old children were superior to the 4-year-old children in both agility tests. The children who played video games well showed higher values in simple reaction time than the children who did not play video games, but not in the repeated sideways jumps. The children who like whole-body dynamic play scored higher than the children who like static play, not only in simple reaction time, but also in the repeated sideways jump test. Although video games affect reaction time of the upper limbs withrespect to visual information, there is no effect on agility for the rest of the body. Enforcing exercise and play time activities, however, would be an effective way to improve the agility of the whole body, in addition to the reaction time of the upper limbs.
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether the residence area influenced physique and physical fitness in Cambodian children. Also, as a secondary purpose, the relationship between physique and physical fitness was examined.The research area included 8 locations(1 city and 7 provinces):Battambang(BTB), Kompong Cham(KCM), Kompon Chhnang(KCH), Kratie(KRT), Phnom Penh(PNH), Rattanakiri(RNK), Sihanoukville(SHV), and Svay Rieng(SVR)in Cambodia.The research subjects included school children aged 7 to 15(M:2747, F:2753).The study was carried out from December 2007 to March 2008.The research contents consisted of physique items(height, weight)and physical fitness items(sit-ups, trunk flexion, side-steps, 5-minute run, 50-meter dash, and long jump). In this study, we analyzed only the long jump among the physical fitness items.In this study, the results showed that metropolitan children tended to be bigger than children from other cities in terms of their physique. On the other hand, metropolitan children showed a lower physical fitness level than children from other cities. Thus, the growth status of metropolitan children(i. e., their larger size)did not necessarily lead to improved power output as evidenced by their long jump results.In addition, Cambodian children were similar to Japanese children in terms of the efficiency of their power output in the long jump. However, children from Phnom Penh exhibited a power output efficiency that was significantly different from those of other Cambodian and Japanese children. Children from Phnom Penh had the lowest power output efficiency in the long jump in 3 areas(Cambodian, Japanese, and Phnom Penh).Certainly, Phnom Penh is urbanizing more rapidly than other cities in Cambodia. Thus, we should think two ways cooperation that primary health care for rural area and lifestyle-related diseases for urbanized area.