Through the use of a questionnaire, this study was intended to clarify the influence of participation in sports(involved or not involved, type, purpose, competitive level, continuation in years, exercise duration, exercise frequency, exercise strength)on the generalized self-efficacy(GSE)scale(Narita and others, 1995)on upper level elementary school children in Hiroshima City. Of the 782 students who responded to the questionnaire, 373 students responded that they are currently active in a sport. A significant difference(p<0.01)emerged in the GSE score between students who engaged in sports and those who did not. No significant difference between these two groups was recognized on the GSE score for the type of sport played. However, a significant difference(p<0.05)on the GSE score was recognized between these two groups for the following:number of years a sport was played, purpose, competitive level, exercise frequency, exercise duration and exercise strength. From these findings, we can conclude that in upper level primary school children, it was shown that continuing to play sports frequently, at a high level, with a sense of purpose, all have a great influence on GSE.
During the period of growth, it has been known that the timing of increasing proximal organ systems later than that of distal one in lower extremities. The aim of this study was to examine the growth pattern of foot and lower leg mass(FLM), thigh lean mass(TLM), knee extension torque(KET), and knee flexion torque(KFT), in addition, to establish the peak growth velocity in relation to time of peak height velocity. Subjects were 26 junior youth soccer footballers. FLM and TLM were measured from DXA scan images, in addition, KET and KFT were measured from isokinetic dynamometer at 6 month intervals for two years. FLM, TLM, KET and KFT increased significantly in two years. This means that growth pattern of lower extremities is similar to height and weight. The time peak velocity of KET was the last of measured items. This result suggests that it has possibility knee extensor strength is not enough to act dynamically, like kicking a ball, in junior youth period.