Background : The purpose of the present study was to develop a school physical activity environment scale and to examine the relationship between school physical activity environment and school physical activity among Japanese elementary school children. Methods : Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to 1,074 Japanese guardians who had elementary school children. Sociodemographic attributes,school physical activity environment scale and time of physical activity at school for a usual lunch time recess and after school were assessed. Results：Exploratory factor analyses identified 3 factors (equipment,facility, and safety). Confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factorial validity revealed acceptable fit indices and the reliability of the scale was acceptable. Those who perceived good these environments were significantly more likely to be physically active in school. Conclusion：The school physical activity environment scale was developed in the present study and demonstrated acceptable factorial validity,internal consistency and inter-rater reliability.
Skeletal muscle is an important body compartment in obesity, because low energy expenditure results from decrease in the proportion of metabolically active tissues such as skeletal muscle. Lean body mass（LBM）and body fat mass（BFM）may change in childhood obesity, but less is known about the characteristics of body composition, skeletal muscle and body fat mass in the body trunk and extremities in obese children without habitual physical activity（HPA). We investigated the differences in LBM, BFM and the cross-sectional areas（CSAs）of skeletal muscle, visceral and subcutaneous fat in body regional and trunk between male obese children with and without HPA.
LBM and BFM was determined by air-displacement plethysmography in Japanese male obese children without (n=21, 9.6+/-1.4 years old) and with (n=23, 9.7+/-1.3 years old) HPA. The CSAs of skeletal muscle, visceral and subcutaneous fat located in upper arm, thigh and trunk, respectively, were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. Obese children without HPA showed significantly higher BFM/height2 and lower LBM/height2 than obese children with HPA (p<0.05). In obese children without HPA, the CSAs were significantly higher in visceral fat and lower in skeletal muscle of thigh than obese children with HPA when adjusted by BFM0.67 or LBM0.67 (p<0.05).The present results indicate; (1) There may be difference of body composition, skeletal muscle and body fat mass in the body trunk and extremities in male obese children with/without HPA.; (2) Male obese children without HPA may have greater BFM and abdominal visceral fat, lower LBM and thigh muscle mass compared with obese children with HPA.
In the present study, we examined longitudinal changes in body size and fitness test records of high school students (males：n=16 ; females：n=6) who had been engaged in“Aikido”as their extracurricular activities from the 1st through the 3rd grade. The chronological changes of body size and and fitness test records were analyzed by repeated-measure analysis of variance at significant level of P＜0.05. Both the body size physical fitness of every subject were significantly improved throughout the three years. This led us to the conclusion that, by training in "Aikido"”throughout their high school years, even the subjects with poor body compositions at baseline showed conspicuous improvement compared with the standard levels of japanese high school counterparts. Another significant improvement was observed in their fitness test records , especially such components as flexibility, agility and grip-strength. Thus, our findings suggest that tge specific skill training in "Aikido", such as footwork,turnover of attack and defense, and‘kata’ (training of forms), might result in the improvement of fitness levels.
This study investigated the effects of a coordination exercise program on quantitative and qualitative changes of throwing and catching ability with the subjects of 5 and 6-year-old 30 preschool children. A4-week control period and a 4-week exercise period were separately set. The exercise program was conducted for 40 minutes a day following the instruction guidance, during 8 days over 4 weeks. The subjects performed motion capacity tests (standing broad jump, side jump) and ball handling tests (control, catching,tennis ball handling) in each period. We evaluated the throwing and catching motions by using five typical developmental stages of motion patterns. As the results, we found a statistically significant increase in the side jump, catching, tennis ball handling and score evaluation for throwing and catching motions in the exercise period compared to the control period. The same results were obtained in both genders. These results suggested that, the coordination exercise program focused on basic ball handling technique may be beneficial to enhance the agility and ball handling capacity in preschool boys and girls aged 5-6, who need an adequate exercise instruction to improve their throwing and catching motions.
The 2011 Great Eastern Japan Earthquake had a significant effect on the lifestyle of the Japanese adolescents. It can be speculated that, in particular, physical activities of victims in the submerged coastal areas have reduced. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the amount of physical activity half a year later from the Earthquake among middle school students in Onagawa (n=187), Higashi-Matsushima (n=374), and Aomori (n=399). The percentage ratio of decrease in population because of death in the Earthquake was 10%, 3%, and 0% in Onagawa, Higashi-Matsushima, and Aomori, respectively.Total of 960 students (aged 12-15 years) reported their personal and demographic characteristics and physical activities toward the end of July and October 2011. The physical activities were measured by the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, and the time spent in a sedentary state (TS) during weekdays and weekends was reported. The results of Pearsonʼs chi-square test revealed that there was no significant difference in the ratio of activity measured by HBSC survey. However, one-way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in the TS during weekdays (P<0.001) and weekends (P<0.001). In a post-hoc test, the students of Onagawa demonstrated higher TS during weekdays (634±296min/day) and weekends (650±276 min/day) compared with the students of Higashi-Matsushima (weekdays,553±249 min/day ; weekends, 591±264 min/day) and Aomori (weekdays, 459±304 min/day ; weekends,552±305 min/day). Compared with students of Aomori, those of Higashi-Matsushima had higher TS during weekdays only. Our findings indicate that TS during weekdays and weekends by adolescents in damaged areas such as Onagawa and Higashi-Matsushima possibly increased as a consequence of the 2011 Great Eastern Japan Earthquake.