The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity by observational evaluation of forward and backward roll movements in 116 male and female elementary school children in the 2nd, 4th, and 6th year, and clarify the development of them and their sex-related differences. Based on VTR images of forward and backward rolls, kinematic analysis of movement factors such as those related to the center of the gravity of the body was performed. A total of 13 teaching staff members, graduate students, and undergraduate students specializing in health and physical education evaluated both movements by observation. To clarify the validity of the observational evaluation of forward and backward rolls, the agreement rate between the results of observational evaluation and those of movement analysis was evaluated. The data on movement factors related to the center of the gravity of the body during forward and backward rolls were consistent with the results of observational evaluation. The agreement rate regarding the results of observational evaluation of forward and backward rolls among the observers was high. Observational evaluation of forward and backward rolls showed an increase in the proficiency level of these movements with the school year and no marked difference in either movement between the males and females. These results suggest the validity and reliability of the observational evaluation of forward and backward rolls.
We conducted a follow-up study on orthostatic dysregulation（OD）in 5325 Myanmar children, ages 10-13. 56.38％ were determined to diagnose as OD. Beginning by filling out a HQC method checklist, these OD-positive children engaged in lifestyle improvement activities Monday through Friday for 8 weeks. At the end of week 1, 38.03％ of the subjects were OD-positive, 27.72％ after week 2, 18.93％ after week 3, 13.69％ after week 4, 4.49％ after week 5, 1.52％ after week 6, 1.37％ after week 7, and reduced to 1.07％ after week 8. From these results we verified that OD symptoms can be improved by sustained check in lifestyle. We also confirmed the efficacy and appropriateness of the HQC method used in this research.
In view of the situation with regard to exercise instruction in kindergartens, this study compares how kindergarten teachersʼ cognition differ depending on the presence／absence of exercise instructors, and explores the background to this. We conducted a questionnaire survey targeting 638 Japanese kindergarten teachers. Approximately about 65％ responded that their institutions had exercise instructors and that gymnastics and other athletic activities and physical education play／motor play were frequently carried out. The survey also revealed that the more oriented towards teaching motor technique the kindergarten teachers were, the greater was their degree of satisfaction with exercise instructors. It is likely that kindergarten teachers do not adequately understand the role of exercise in preschool childrenʼs development and motor development in preschool children, which suggests the need for an examination that includes training courses in its scope.