The Mlabri people of the mountainous region of northern Thailand were nomadic hunter-gatherers until 20 years ago. They have begun to settle in recent years, but their original customs and play from their life in the forest still endure. Over three years we conducted a survey of Mlabri children play. Among their games were straddling banana trees (ngën khïng lam kuëy), playing and swinging on vines (ngën mòq), hide and seek (hnpok tò mlaq), tag (ban tot tò mlaq), spear throwing (dor khòt), and cutting grass (ngën thet hny hnyay). These are the same games that Mlabri children played in their pre-settlement life in the forest. This kind of play must have contributed greatly to exceptional physical abilities of the forest-dwelling Mlabri, and cultivating these skills since early childhood must have been deeply connected to their survival in the past. Studying the play of Mlabri children, and the role it plays in their development, could be useful in understanding the roots and significance of modern childrenʼs play as well.
Recently, there is anticipation for delayed or distorted higher nervous activity of the Japanese children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the higher nervous activity of recent children by using the go/no-go task. Additionally, the purpose was to examine living factors related to higher nervous activity. Subjects were 1,585 healthy children who were from 1st to 6th graders in elementary schools. The all investigations were carried out in quiet classroom at respective school from September to December 2013. For this study, we used the “go/no-go task” that was devised by Luria, A. R. The false reaction number and the type of the higher nervous activity against go/no-go tasks were used by analysis in this study. The type of each subject was classified into five (melancholic, choleric, inhibitory, phlegmatic and sanguine type) as regard the higher nervous activity based on Pavlov, I. P. theory. On the other hand, the items of questionnaire about living conditions consisted of after-school situations, sleep conditions and morning physical activities in school. The results were as follows：1) Subjects for this study were the elementary school children who had a short electronic media time, and a long physical activity time. 2) In the examination of the false reaction number and the typologies of higher nervous activity by go/no-go task, it was shown that the grade change was not different in boys and girls, that there was more number of the false reactions in no-go task and no task of boys than girls, that all the false reactions decrease with grade progress, and that the incidence of “Melancholic type” which was the most childish was high value. 3) In the multiple logistic regression of the relation between types of the higher nervous activity and living conditions, it was confirmed that the morning physical activity in school had a good influence on the higher nervous activity of the child. These results suggest that creating, validating the evidence and accumulating the practice in morning physical activities at school are the future subjects.
The sleep situation of the children with developmental disabilities is worried about. However, an answer to questionnaire survey by the handicapped children oneself is difficulty. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to grasp the sleep situation of high school students with developmental disabilities by the contactless biomotion sensor. Subjects were 8 students with developmental disabilities (intellectual disability：n＝5, diffuse development disability：n＝2, autism：n＝1) in special support high school and 16 healthy students in normal high schools. The all investigations were carried out from September to November 2013. For this study, we used the contactless biomotion sensor (SleepDesign®, HSL-102 M). Additionally, the healthy students completed a questionnaire on their bedtime and wake-time. The results were as follows：1) In males, the wake-time with the contactless biomotion sensor was earlier than the wake-time with questionnaire. However, wake-time in females and bedtime in males and females with the contactless biomotion sensor and the questionnaire were not significantly different. 2) But it was shown the differences between the bedtime and wake-time with the contactless biomotion sensor and the questionnaire were great. 3) While the handicapped students were long sleep time, their sleep-onset latency and wake-after-sleep onset had problems.
One of the purposes of this study is to examine the possibility of the number of steps as an index for grasping the currently recommended target amount of physical activity. A further objective was to clarify how physical fitness level or taking exercise are related to the psychosocial factors that underpin the exercise motivation, and the amount of physical activity. The subjects were 53 elementary school students in grades 5 and 6, and the survey was carried out over 5 consecutive weekdays in mid-October 2013. The study clarified the following points： 1 ) The target number of steps for ensuring physical activity equivalent to LC4-9 for 60 min or more is 15,500 steps, and for ensuring LC7-9 for 25 min or more is 16,000 steps. 2 ) The high rank group of physical fitness tended to show greater amount of physical activities, but among girls no difference due to level of physical fitness group was seen in LC7-9. 3 ) The high rank group of physical fitness had higher recognition of the benefits of exercise, and lower recognition of the burdens. Also, the high rank group of physical fitness scored higher for levels of enjoyment of movement and skill in exercise, as well as for support and approval from the family. These results suggest that in order to ensure that children meet the target amount of physical activity, it is important not only to establish an exercise environment, including times and places for exercise, for the achievement of the numerical targets, but also to give guidance that emphasizes relationships with human factors such as family, teachers, and friends.
We investigated the body image among schoolboys and schoolgirls in Niigata prefecture in concerning with their degree of obesity (n＝57767). We calculated gap rate between self body image and own degree of obesity. It appears that female students tend to overestimate own body image, and it makes high gap rate. In spite of the degree of obesity is “thin or more highly thin figures” , it was revealed that “At-Risk” students desiring to be more thin exist in the groups. This tendency has been on increase as one's grade in school advanced year by year. On the other hand, “the satisfaction-group” having been contented with the perception in line with the body type regarding one-self was shown to decrease as one' grade in school advanced.
Height, weight and calcaneus bone strength of one male subject was measured every 2 months from the 1st grade of elementary school to the 3rd grade of high school. After that they were measured in September in the 1st grade of university, in July and December in the 2nd grade of university. The longitudinal data was compared to the cross-sectional datum of 806 population from the 1st grade of elementary school to the 2nd grade of university. The developmental pattern of one male subject’s calcaneus bone strength from the 1st grade of elementary school to the 3rd grade of high school showed not gradual increment state but non linear state which revealed significant cubic regression curve. The month-elapsed development pattern of calcaneus bone strength during this period seemed to be not so steady as one of height or weight, rather showed huge unevenness. Consequently, it was inferred that each developmental relationship of calcaneus bone strength with height and weight was poorer than one of height with weight due to this unevenness. As a result of the continuation of Internet Addiction Disorder-like life since the entrance of university, his calcaneus bone strength decreased remarkably, and showed very lower value than the cross-sectional datum of the same age. From this fact, it is suggested that the living condition for the health of the bone since the entrance of university must be managed with a considerable carefulness.