The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between footprint, motor ability, and obesity with aging in 4- to 12-year-old children (n＝3944, 1957 boys and 1987 girls). We measured the footprint using Pedoscope, and measured the subjects' motor ability while performing 25m sprint, broad jump, and ball throw. The footprint was classified into normal feet and flat feet. Sprint and broad jump ability with non-normal foot girls were significantly lower than those for the normal foot after the age of 7. Obesity with non-normal foot types was significantly higher than obesity with normal feet after the age of 10 boys. Sprint ability with non-obesity boys were significantly higher than obesity after the age of 10, jump ability with non-obesity was significantly higher than obesity after the age of 8, and throw ability with non-obesity boys were significantly higher than obesity after the age of 10. Sprint ability with non-obesity girls were significantly higher than obesity after the age of 7, jump ability with non-obesity was significantly higher than obesity after the age of 8, 11, and 12. Sprint ability with non-obesity of normal feet were significantly higher than obesity of normal feet from 10- to 12-year-old boys and the age of 12 girls, obesity of flat feet the age of 12 boys and the age of 9 and 10 girls. Broad jump with non-obesity of normal feet were significantly higher than obesity of normal feet the age of 11-12 boys and 12 girls, obesity of flat feet the age of 12 boys and 10 girls, non-obesity of flat feet the age of 12 girls. In conclusions, in terms of footprint, motor ability, and obesity in children, it was suggested that it was important occasion to change after 9 years old.
The growth patterns of musculoskeletal tissues are classified in the general type by Scammon RE. However, it is well known that bone and muscle do not grow concurrently each other, as well as those of different regions. Previous study comparing the peak velocity timing (PVT) of musculoskeletal tissues in Canadian children using DXA reported the following developmental order height, lean mass and bone mass. As no study has investigated the PVT of musculoskeletal tissues in Japanese children, we measured the PVT of seventy healthy male junior high school students using DXA by six times from admission to graduation of their school. Our results showed the same developmental order (height-lean mass-bone mass) in Japanese boys as in Canadian children.
Children need a minimum of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, a standard proposed by various national guidelines. To our knowledge, however, it is unclear whether there is any positive association between motor ability and vigorous intensity time in preschool children. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between motor ability and step counts or vigorous physical activity time in preschool children (n＝754, 383 boys and 371 girls). We measured the subjects' motor ability while performing 6 activities. The performance in each activity was rated on a 5-point scale (5-1), as suggested by Japanese previous study. Daily physical activity was assessed using accelerometers (Lifecorder EX, Suzuken, Japan) throughout the day for 7 consecutive days. LC intensity assessed LC1-6 (lower intensity than runnning) and LC7-9 (higher intensity than running). LC7-9 time (min/day) was from 23.4±8.3 to 24.4±8.2 in boys and from 18.0±5.2 to 18.9±7.8 in girls on weekdays and from 15.5±9.1 to 17.0±10.7 in boys and from 15.2±8.3 to 15.5±9.4 in girls on weekends, respectively. The total fitness scores were weakly but significantly positively correlated with step counts in both sexes and LC7-9 time in girls. Until B rank in the total fitness scores, step counts (step/day) needed 14685.4 boys and 12419.0 girls on weekdays, and 11384.4 boys and 10398.0 girls on weekends, respectively. LC7-9 needed 24.1 boys and 18.5 girls on weekdays, and 21.4 boys and 17.1 on weekends at least, respectively. Our findings were suggested daily step counts and LC7-9 time to improve motor ability in preschool children.
This study aimed to elucidate what influence short-term affect associated with a physical education class has on long-term affect and self-efficacy related to physical activity. The subjects were 34 young children（18 boys and 16 girls). Tee ball was used as a teaching material, consisting of teaching units of a total of 8 lessons, and was performed two to three times per week in October 2013. Surveyed items were the number of steps taken and three measures of affect（short-term affect soon after lesson, long-term affect, and self-efficacy). The measurements were made using a wristwatch-type pedometer, short-term affect scale, general affect scale for children, and self-efficacy scale of physical activity for elementary school children. The results of analysis were： 1. In young children, the mean number of steps decreased temporarily in the first half of the teaching units but increased to approximately 3000 steps in the second half. 2. Long-term positive affect was related to mean scores of tranquility and a sense of positive engagement soon after lesson. 3. Self-efficacy of physical activity was positively related to the mean scores of tranquility and a positive engagement soon after lesson but was negatively related to negative affect. In conclusion, it was elucidated that attainment of a sense of positive engagement and tranquility were important in the lesson.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the developmental characteristics of orientation and differentiation abilities in early childhood, focusing on the throwing and jumping motion. Research participants were two hundred and eighty three children aged 3.0 to 6.5 (146 boys and 137 girls) . They were given 4 coordination ability tests. As a result of this study, three things related to the developmental process of the orientation and differentiation abilities were found. First of all, phenomena that the means of each test result stagnated or declined temporarily and then rose remarkably were observed. This suggested that the development of orientation and differentiation abilities was not a linear process. Rather this process was similar to the phenomenon on the stage of acquisition and improvement in “developmental process of motor learning”. Secondly, it demonstrates that there were differences of developmental characteristics of the orientation and differentiation abilities between boys and girls. The results of the tests included throwing motion showed that these phenomena happened with boys six months earlier than girls. On the other hand, the result of the test included jumping motion showed this phenomenon happened with girls six months earlier than boys. Finally, we found that the means of each test result rose remarkably around 4 and a half years old. This is the same period defined as a critical developmental period, which is called “developmental turning point at the age of 4 and a half years old”. This research has revealed that the developmental characteristics of orientation and differentiation ability in early childhood should be understood from the dual points of both motor development and cognitive development.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in movement that characterize the fundamental movement patterns experienced in motor play across kindergarten and the lower grades of elementary school during physical education class. The objects of study included one public elementary school and one public kindergarten that included a elementary school section. The fundamental movement patterns experienced by the children during classes were evaluated by 19 classroom teachers. The observed classes included 4-5-year-olds of kindergarten classes and Grade 1-2 classes of elementary school. The frequency of 45 fundamental movement patterns was assessed through observation by classroom teachers. The number of fundamental movement patterns showing high frequency increased from 4-year-old kindergarten classes to 5-year-old kindergarten classes, with 5-year-old children showing longer periods of activity, centered on playing activity. Second graders experienced various fundamental movement patterns during physical education class. In contrast, first graders experienced very limited fundamental movement patterns. The repertoire of various fundamental movement patterns were experienced in childhood. However, the content of the physical education classes of Grade 1 elementary school appears to not be based on experiences of kindergarten. Fundamental movement patterns that can be described overall as “exercises to trial of power” were observed at lower frequencies, with Grade 1 classes observed as especially low. In addition, results showed that there was little experience of movements such as“push,” “pull,” and “carry.”
[Background and Purpose] It has been pointed out recently that the issue of declining physical fitness occurs even in young children. As a background, some decline in physical activity and changes in daily life rhythms have been noted. While there have been experiments examining exercise performance and lifestyle improvement in young children, their daily activity pattern has not yet been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to classify the daily patterns of activity intensity and to examine the relationships between these patterns and steps, lifestyle, and health status in young children. [Method] Participants were 386 young children. We measured activity intensity during each weekday using the Lifecorde GS (Suzuken Corporation). We classified participants by activity intensity per hour, using a non-hierarchical cluster analysis with the k-means method. The differences in the daily patterns of activity intensity were confirmed using a two way ANOVA. In addition, the relationships between the daily patterns of activity intensity and steps, lifestyle, and health status were confirmed by an ANCOVA, cross tabulation, and chi-square test. [Results and Discussion] The participants were classified into two clusters and a significant difference in the daily patterns of activity intensity was confirmed. Further, a significant difference in the average number of daily steps was confirmed. The clear difference was not confirmed in a part of lifestyle and health status between two clusters.