Molecular analysis has several problems including (1) small samples, (2) radiation of molecular strains or races that separately generate their own species-level lineages, (3) all problems associated with cladistics analysis done using morphological data, (4) conflicting studies, (5) reuse of data contributing to small samples and absence of experimental replication, (6) no native taxon concept, and (7) use of combined data sets to achieve an invented gene history. A macroevolutionary re-interpretation of a recent molecular revision of species of Didymodon s.lat. (Bryophyta) introduces a monophyletic evolutionary model fully compatible with both molecular and morphological data. Multiple molecular races and their contribution to paraphyly and apparent polyphyly are quantized through analysis of recent published studies to demonstrate uncertainty of monophyly on the order of a distance of 4.5 contiguous nodes per species in molecular cladograms. The number of trait changes per speciation event averaged 3.57, on a par with previous studies. This work is the first successful prediction of the actual existence of a missing link, Exobryum rufidulum, hypothetically described in a previous macroevolutionary analysis. For the first time a taxon higher than genus was established based on an extension of the empirical dissilient genus concept. Six new combinations are made in Exobryum. A new genus, Aithobryum, is established with three species transferred from Didymodon. Didymodon sinuosus and D. californicus are transferred to Vinealobryum.
Type materials of Central and South American little-known species in the family Trichocoleaceae are critically reviewed. On the basis of the presence of perianths Trichocolea brevifissa Steph. and T. sprucei Steph. are newly included in the genus Leiomitra Lindb.: L. brevifissa (Steph.) T.Katag. and L. sprucei (Steph.) T.Katag. Trichocolea floccosa Herzog & Hatcher from Costa Rica is newly synonymized with L. sprucei. The worldwide key to the species of Leiomitra is given for the first time.
In the Mediterranean climate, during the hot and dry summer, small streams dry out exposing the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica L. ex Hedw. to desiccation, losing all cellular water content. Previous works showed that fast dehydration (less than two hours) is extremely severe, unabling recovery upon rehydration. On the other hand, slow dehydration allows the recovery of the bryophyte through induction of desiccation tolerance mechanisms. To explore how the photosynthetic apparatus responds to contrasting dehydration rates, we measured the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm (maximum potential quantum efficiency of Photosystem II) as a proxy to photosynthetic fitness and analysed the content of the pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids). In slowly dehydrated Fontinalis antipyretica, the content of the pigments remained constant down to RWC of 40–50%, while the loss was striking in fast dehydrated samples as early as RWC of 70–80% RWC, showing different threshold values for different desiccation rates.
Mohamedia brunnea, an endemic species to Borneo, was newly discovered in lowland rain forest in southern Thailand. This species is fully described and illustrated, and the arrangement of the elaters is described for the first time, and then briefly explain the two types of elaters over here.
The genera Fleischerobryum Loeske and Philonotis Brid. of the Bartramiaceae and the family Mniaceae (excluding Pohlia Hedw.) are revised for Vietnam, based on specimens studied and literature reports. Four species are added to the flora: Orthomnion javense (M.Fleisch.) T.J.Kop., Philonotis asperifolia Mitt., P. laii T.J.Kop., P. speciosa (Griff.) Mitt. syn. nov. (based on P. mercieri Paris & Broth.), and Plagiomnium wui (T.J.Kop.) Y.J.Yi & S.He. Eight species are excluded from the flora. Two taxa are considered doubtful. The flora now includes one species of Fleischerobryum, eight species of Philonotis, one species of Mnium Hedw. (doubtful), three species of Orthomnion Wills. and five species of Plagiomnium (one doubtful). The 15 species are divided into phytogeographical elements. Eight belong to the Southeast Asiatic temperate to meridional element, and seven to the Southeast Asiatic meridional to subtropical element. One species is pantropical and one is pansubtropical. The new finds widen the distribution range of several species that were previously known only from North or South Vietnam.
A total of 12 species of Pyxine is reported from Kerala state of which P. retirugella Nyl. is new to the region while P. dactyloschmidtii Kalb & Mongkolsuk is new to India. Pyxine dactyloschmidtii is characterized in having polysidiangia and earlier known from Thailand. Brief descriptions for the novel taxa and a key to all Pyxine species occurring in India are provided.