Higher Brain Function Research
Online ISSN : 1880-6554
Print ISSN : 1348-4818
ISSN-L : 1348-4818
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  • Toshiya Murai, Shiho Ubukata, Keita Ueda
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 5-9
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      Various types of aberrant social behaviors may occur after brain injury. Some of these behaviors might be understood as 1) direct consequences of brain injury; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction are the three major domains of aberrant social behaviors after injury of prefrontal cortex, 2) consequence of other neuropsychological manifestations such as delirium or amnesic syndrome, 3) psychological reactions to physical impairment or social difficulties. To evaluate behavioral symptoms, itʼs important to obtain information from persons who are familiar with the patient. Individual-oriented intervention would be effective to improve the patientʼs social function.

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Original article
  • Yasuhisa Nakamura, Takehiko Yamanaka, Fumiyasu Ishii, Sachiko Anamizu, ...
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 10-17
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      The Tinkertoy Test (TTT) is used as a measure of divergent thinking included in the executive function of schizophrenic patients. We added the creation process scores to the current TTT scoring standards and investigated to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Modified TTT criteria. To this end, measures of Divergent Thinking including the Modified TTT, the Design Fluency test (DFT) , the Idea Fluency Test (IFT) , and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) were performed. Using divergent thinking test and an executive functional test of a group of 45 schizophrenic patients and a group of 35 healthy controls, the schizophrenic patients were significantly lower in multiple tests. With the coefficient of Cronbachʼs α was 0.82 in the schizophrenic group and 0.81 in the control group, indicating that the Modified TTT scoring criteria can consistently be measured irrespective of the object. Correlation analysis of the Modified TTT total score, DFT, and IFT identified significant positive correlations among several items, and confirmed the criterion-related validity. These results suggest that the scoring criteria of the Modified TTT possesses both reliability and validity, and is applicable as a measure of Divergent Thinking in schizophrenic patients.

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  • Rina Mitsuto, Tsubasa Nishikoori, Kazumi Tatsukawa, Yukari Hashimoto, ...
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 18-27
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      Objective: Previous studies have reported that verbal fluency task (VFT) scores are useful for cognitive evaluation in Alzheimerʼs disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) . Qualitative analysis of VFT responses may enable evaluation of cognitive dysfunction of search words and self-monitoring in AD and MCI. Furthermore, although search word function is evaluated on the basis of search word strategies these strategies have focused on English speakers and therefore are not suitable for analyzing responses of Japanese-speaking participants. This study examined characteristics of search words strategies and self-monitoring in Japanese-speaking patients with AD and MCI.
      Methods: Japanese-speaking patients with AD (n=34) and MCI (n=13) and normal controls NC (n=18) participated in this study. The participants executed two kinds of VFT: semantic fluency tasks and letter fluency tasks. The total number of words, number of clusters, and number of switches among clusters were used as an index of search word dysfunction. The ratio of repetitive responses and ratio of questions to the tester concerning repetition of responses in both tasks were used to evaluate self-monitoring dysfunction.
      Result: In the semantic fluency task, the AD group produced fewer clusters and switches and more repetitions of responses and questions compared to the NCs. The MCI group produced fewer clusters and switches.
      Conclusions: In the semantic fluency task, cognitive function of search words declined in both the AD and MCI groups, while self-monitoring was impaired in AD patients only. The letter fluency task yielded no differences.

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  • Shotaro Murata, Hiroshi Wakata, Takatsugu Murakawa, Susumu Imai, Kenji ...
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 28-35
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      We reported two Japanese patients with phonological dyslexia. In both patients, reading with a magnifying glass improved performance of a reading aloud task of Kana non-words, and enabled the patients to feel facility at reading sentences. On the reading aloud task of Kana non-words, both patients scored significantly better when they used a magnifying glass than when reading without one. We consider the mechanism of the effect as follows: Reading with a magnifying glass generates a mental set to focus on and read letters one by one on the reading aloud task. In both patients, the mental set may partially compensate for the fragility of phonological representation and impaired processing of phonological sequencing, and reduce misreading of Kana non-words. Use of a magnifying glass may reduce misreading of general sentences as well as non-words in Japanese patients with phonological dyslexia because of the agglutinative nature of the Japanese language.

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  • Takahiro Goto
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 36-42
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      Background and purpose: Consultation support activities have been provided for people with higher brain dysfunction in community settings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chief complaints of the participants differ depending on age, the time since the onset of brain injury or who consulted.
      Methods: Seventy-five participants were chosen from people with higher brain dysfunction who had consulted with the Rehabilitation Counseling Center for the Physically Handicapped of A city more than once. The participants were classified by their age, by the duration of their diseases and by the person who had first contact with at the Rehabilitation Counseling Center. Chief complaints were classified into 7 categories.
      Results: The most common chief complaint was “specialized support.” “Step-up” was the most common chief complaint among the young participants. “Medical intervention and diagnosis” was the most common chief complaint among the participants who were >10 years passed the onset of their brain dysfunction. “Family support” was the most common chief complaint among the families who sought consultation.
      Consideration: A consultation support organization for people with higher brain dysfunction is required to provide specialized and employment support, discover the support needs of long-term patients, and provide family support. Collaboration between specialized support organizations is also necessary.

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  • Koji Yamada, Ryusaku Hashimoto, Ayumi Tateoka, Shinya Habadera
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 43-51
    Published: March 31, 2019
    Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

      Romanized Japanese words are Japanese words written in the Roman alphabet (e. g., water=MIZU) . When Japanese people type Japanese words with a QWERTY keyboard, they usually type key sequences according to romanized Japanese spelling. We examined romanized Japanese spelling and typing abilities in a 73-year-old right-handed male patient with left frontal lobe damage and mild aphasia who could touch type pre-onset. In dictation tasks, we first asked him to write words and non-words in Kana, and also asked him to type them with a QWERTY keyboard. We found that he had difficulty in Kana writing, but could smoothly type the words and non-words. There were no differences in the scores between words and non-words in any task. Second, we asked him to spell out Japanese words in the Roman alphabet and found that he had difficulty in writing romanized Japanese words. In contrast, his typing ability was preserved. Generally, an inexperienced touch typist needs to refer to the Japanese syllable-Roman grapheme correspondence rule; when one becomes an expert at touch typing, Japanese mora directly associate with the corresponding key sequence movements (keystrokes) . The reason for preserved typing ability may be that this patient was a touch typist and had developed a Japanese mora-keystroke conversion system pre-onset. Brain regions outside the left frontal lobe (such as the left parietal lobe) may contribute to the Japanese mora-keystroke conversion system. Thus, the patient showed a dissociation between romanized Japanese spelling and typing abilities; the former was impaired but the latter was preserved.

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