The aim of the study was to construct an observation tool for assessment of the amount of the low back load during transferring patients on bed, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the tool. The tool consists of 18 items arranged in three parts: working environment, posture stability, and movement efficiency. In validity of the experiment, 14 nurses performed repositioning up in bed to a standardized patient. Their movements were recorded, and the joint angles, distances, compressive forces (Fc) to the L5/S1 were calculated. The overall score was moderately related to the maximum and average Fc (r = -0.42, p < 0.01 and r = -0.52, p < 0.05). In reliability of the experiment, five observers checked 19 patterns of repositioning up in bed, performed by one nurse. The intraclass correlation coefficients were over 0.80 in the inter-observer reliability, and were over 0.70 in the intra-observer reliability. Therefore, the validity and reliability of this tool were satisfactory, and the results suggest that this tool is a useful test for assessing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders related to patient transfer
Introduction: It is known that skeletal muscle with disuse atrophy exhibits reduction of muscle mass, diminution of fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA), etc. In the process of disuse atrophy, it is also known that the number of leukocytes and the frequency of cell division of non-endothelial cells are increased in the interstitium. We investigated the condition of disuse atrophy and the numerical changes of interstitial free mononuclear cells with the passage of time after immobilization.
Materials and methods: The soleus muscles of ICR mice were used in this study. In the immobilized groups, the left hindlimb was immobilized at the ankle joint at maximum planter flexion. After routine ATPase staining, FCSA of each muscle fiber (type I, type II) was measured separately. The number of interstitial free mononuclear cells per unit area (500 × 500 µm) was counted by using longitudinal paraffin sections stained by hematoxylin-eosin and it was defined as the interstitial free mononuclear cell index.
Results: FCSA of both type I and type II fibers were smaller in each immobilized group compared to the control group. The interstitial free mononuclear cell index tended to show a rapid increase after 3 days of immobilization and the index tended to be continuously higher compared with the control group after day 3.
Discussion: By comparing FCSA and the interstitial free mononuclear cell index, it was speculated that the state of muscle disuse atrophy can be evaluated easily and promptly using the interstitial free mononuclear cell index.
In this study, we examined learning effect through the practice of the coincidence-anticipation timing task using absolute error and beta bands during the task. In this task, a partly masked stimulus runway was used. Twelve healthy right-handed adult volunteers were asked to press a holding pushbutton using the right thumb when the downward moving visual target arrived at the end during the task. Subjects practiced the task for ten days. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded during the task in the pre-practice and the post-practice. The electroencephalograms were subjected to fast Fourier transform in order to produce the power density in beta bands (13-30 Hz). The power in beta bands was expressed as a percentage of total power (3-30 Hz) in three segments: the visible section, the first half of the masked section, and the second half of the masked section.
In the results, compared to the pre-practice, absolute error was significantly decreased during the task in the post-practice. In addition, compared to the pre-practice, the percentage of beta bands was significantly decreased in the inferior frontal gyrus, the temporal cortex and increased in the premotor cortex during the task in the post-practice. We conclude that there is a relationship increased the percentage of beta bands in the premotor cortex during the task and learning effect.
BACKGROUND: There are high expectations in Europe and the United States on the effects of computer-based intervention programs as a population approach method aimed at increasing the amount of physical activity based on the behavioral change theory. However, very few researches are conducted in Japan to develop and validate the impact of such programs. PURPOSE: To develop and use a computer walking program (CWP) aimed at increasing the amount of lifestyle physical activity based on the behavioral change theory, and to objectively assess its validity by observing changes in the step count as preliminary study. METHODS: The study was conducted on 32 employees at Company O (16 men, 16 women) for a 10-week period. A pedometer was distributed to each participant. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three intervention group: 1) Computer-based media intervention group with motivationally-tailored individualized feedback and behavior change techniques, 2) Printed-based booklet intervention group with behavior change techniques or 3) Control group provided with health-related information. CWP Group had their pedometer data automatically retrieved onto My Page of CWP every week, checked step count, and set their following week’s target. Tips on actions to increase the step count were provided. RESULTS: 20 out of 32 original participants were completed the program (Analysis objects were the participants who completed the program). There was a significant difference in the step count during intervention period between CWP Group and Control Group (F2,17 = 7.095, p < .05). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the CWP can be regarded as a promising population approach method.