We investigated changing patterns of attention from various finger reaction tasks to postural disturbance, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen subjects maintaining a quiet standing posture were perturbed by a backward floor translation (S2) 2 s after an auditory warning signal (S1). The experiment was divided into conditions with an auditory response signal (RS) presented 500 ms before S2 and without RS (no-RS). Conditions with RS were composed of the following finger reaction tasks: choice-; simple-; and no-reactions. ERPs from Cz and Pz, postural muscle activities and the center of foot pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap) were analysed. In the conditions with RS, ERP negatively increased toward RS and N1 occurred about 100 ms after RS, with no differences related to condition. N2 about 200 ms after RS was significantly earlier and smaller in choice- than simple- and no-reaction conditions. P3 about 300 ms after RS was significantly larger in choice- than simple- and no-reaction, with no difference in latency among conditions. The ERPs were negatively increased toward S2 and showed similar amplitude among all conditions. In the conditions with RS, forward displacement of CoPap after S2 was smaller, and preparatory activity of postural muscles just before S2 and burst activation of triceps surae after S2 started earlier, compared with no-RS. It is conceivable that postural control would be successfully performed in all conditions, because the attentional change from each reaction task to postural disturbance occurred effectively and RS played the role of a cue signal to the disturbance.
This study aimed to develop a cognitive appraisal scale of preparing food and to define which cognitive appraisals of food preparation influence dietary education (Shokuiku) in the home. Survey respondents were 857 mothers of kindergarten-age children living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The two main results are as follows. Firstly, factor analysis extracted three factors as a cognitive appraisal scale of food preparation: the burden of preparing food, the enjoyment of preparing food, and interest in food safety. Secondly, examination of the relationship between cognitive appraisals of food preparation and Shokuiku in the home indicated that Shokuiku was negatively affected by the burden of preparing food, but was positively affected by the enjoyment of preparing food. Interest in food safety had both negative and positive effects on Shokuiku. In conclusion, this study revealed that Shokuiku in the home is both positively and negatively affected by mothers’ cognitive appraisals of cooking.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale for measuring felt low back pain (SMFL) among students and workers (18-64 years old) in Japan. The questionnaire was 26 items selected from Preliminary investigation.
The factor analysis was conducted on responses from 336 students or workers, and three factors were extracted and were identified: (I) Prickle; (II) Sense of stiffness; (III) Dull pain. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency.
The scores of the three factors of SMFL were significantly correlated with the scores of the scale for measuring felt shoulder stiffness (r = 0.382 - 0.544). "Prickle" and "Dull pain" were related to depression. In addition, those three factors were correlative between "Anger expression" and "BS-POP".
These results suggest that SFML may be a reliable instrument for assessing Low back pain for Japanese students and workers.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior by middle-aged and elderly women on hematological parameters and to make a contribution to offering health information to the health education in preparation for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Fifty one women, aged 40-69 years who cooperated with the survey directed to the citizens of Niigata in 2007 were analysis subjects. The selection of the analysis subject was based on the response to the questionnaire about lifestyle, participation in the blood test, no administration of insulin shot or medication to reduce blood sugar or cholesterol.
The blood test score that showed significant correlation with the score of sitting time were T-C, TG, and T-C/HDL-C (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). These items all showed negative correlation with the score of sitting time (less time scores higher points). On the other hand, no correlation was found in blood test score when we analyzed the time score for kinetic strength for activities that are done intentionally and deliberately to maintain and improve stamina not including waking during the daily activities.
From the result of this study, decrease in T-C, TG, and T-C/HDL-C is suggested along with the decrease in sitting time.