The aim of this study was to assess behavior modification stages of attendance at specific health check-ups in Japan and the characteristics of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to the attendance at the check-ups, depending on the stage. Subjects were 1,206 males and females aged 40 to 64 years who had national health insurance via a local municipality and who had at least one specific health check-up between 2008 and 2011. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire by post regarding attributes and knowledge (10 items), attitudes (12 items), and behaviors (12 items) related to the health check-ups. Information regarding the attendance at health check-ups during the 3 years of the study period was acquired from municipal database. A total of 674 subjects (55.9%) returned the questionnaires. Of those, 394 who attended health check-ups annually were categorized ‘at the maintenance stage’, 208 who attended check-ups irregularly were categorized ‘at the action stage’, and 72 were new examinees. Based on the results of multiple logistic regression analysis, the maintenance stage group had higher knowledge, a stronger determination to undergo regular health check-ups, and engaged in actions including attending check-ups with family or friends. The results suggested that public health nurses who conduct health check-ups and subsequent health guidance need to support irregular examinees to acquire knowledge regarding check-ups and increase sense of self-efficacy. The results also indicated that promoting the application of the results of health check-ups to individuals’ day-to-day lifestyles is necessary.
We examined the effects of the tempo of yogic high-frequency breathing ‘kapalabhati’ (HFYB) on brain and muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy and compared autonomic activity before and after HFYB in nine yoga beginners. We concomitantly measured oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb), deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentrations, the tissue oxygen index in the forehead and forearm flexor muscle, skin blood flow, and cardiovascular responses during a preparatory period, HFYB period, and recovery period. The participants performed HFYB at a tempo of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.16 Hz. The relationship between oxyHb levels and HFYB tempo in the forearm muscle was significantly closer only at 0.5 Hz. Oxygenation of the forehead did not change at any tempo. The LF and HF power of autonomic activity remained unchanged before and after HFYB at all tempos. These results suggest that blood flow to muscle is increased by HFYB at a tempo of 0.5 Hz, but not at slower tempos in yoga beginners.