The differences in the reaction times of finger flexion and pro-saccade were investigated between sports in which information processing related to pro-saccade would be markedly different. Subjects comprised 21 and 22 young adults belonging to a table tennis or badminton club (RS group) and a basketball club (BB group), respectively, for 3 years or more. Pro-saccade and index finger flexion on the dominant hand side were performed based on the appearance of targets in the peripheral and foveal visual fields, respectively. The reaction times of pro-saccade and finger flexion were analyzed. The pro-saccade reaction time to a peripheral visual target was significantly shorter in the BB group than in the RS group, while no significant difference was found between these groups in finger reaction time to a foveal visual target. These findings suggest that the functions related to gaze shift, including attention to the peripheral visual field, identification of a visual target and release of fixation, change according to sports experience.
We investigated the effects of consecutive visual search (CVS) on cerebral activity during a spatial cueing task (SCT). Ten participants performed the SCT before and after CVS. We used the Advanced Trail Making Test Random Task for the CVS. In this task, the participants used a computer mouse and clicked numbers from 11 to 40 arranged in a circle in serial order. Once a numbered target is clicked, it disappears and another circle with the clicked number plus 30 showed up at the same time. At the moment, the location of all circles were rearranged at random and 30 circles were on the screen at any time. Each participant performed the task 40 times. In the SCT, an up - or down - pointing arrow was shown at the center of the display as the warning stimulus (S1). A square target as the imperative stimulus (S2) subsequently appeared above or below the central cue. When the directions of S1 and S2 corresponded, each participant was required to respond by pressing the joystick button with his right thumb. Each participant performed the task 80 times. SCT performance and electroencephalogram power spectrum of 13 - 30 Hz (beta power) before and after the CVS were compared.
Performance in the SCT was significantly impaired and beta power in the F7 electrodes was significantly increased after the CVS vs. before the CVS. These results suggest that the CVS caused distraction and increased the activity to maintain the spatial attention in the left middle and inferior frontal gyri.
This study was the examination of the sustained effects of the autonomic nerve response due to the difference in the posture of the supine and the standing after the acupuncture method of the "skin / subcutaneous tissue, exhalation phase, sitting position". The subjects were 11 healthy male college students without medication and smoking habits (age 19.6 ± 1.0 years old, height 172.1 ± 4.1 cm, body weight 70.4 ± 4.3 kg). Cardiac autonomic nerve function was measured by measuring electrocardiogram and analyzing by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. In the evaluation by spectral analysis, the high frequency component HF (0.15 - 0.40 Hz) and the low frequency component LF (0.04 - 0.15 Hz) were measured, and HF component was used as a cardiac parasympathetic function and LF / HF component was used as an index of cardiac sympathetic function. HR and HF components showed no significant change at standing posture with passage of time after the acupuncture stimulation. However, HR and HF components showed significant change at supine posture with passage of time after the acupuncture stimulation, and enhanced the cardiac parasympathetic function. Furthermore, significant increase of LF / HF component was observed between 5 minutes and 25 minutes after the stimulation in the supine position. From these results, it was obvious that the sustained effects of acupuncture stimulation in the enhancement of cardiac parasympathetic function was caused by supine posture. Moreover, it was suggested that this acupuncture method may be enhance both cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves.
We examined the relationship between the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and heart rate variability (HRV) component after practice of yogic breathing ‘Kapalabhati’ (KB) with a tempo of 0.16, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz for yoga inexperienced persons. We concomitantly measured the tissue oxygen index (TOI) using near-infrared spectroscopy in the forehead and the vagal (high frequency; HF) component of HRV during a resting period, KB period, and recovery period. We observed no difference between the TOI of the right and left brains of the KB period at any tempo. In the comparison between the resting period and the recovery period, TOI of the right DLPFC significantly decreased in the recovery period compared to the rest period only in the 0.25 Hz tempo. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between the difference in recovery period from resting period in both the right TOI and the HF component of HRV in the 0.25 Hz tempo. From this result, it was suggested that practice of KB with 0.25 Hz tempo for 1 minute by yoga inexperienced persons reduced the right DLPFC activity, and which was related with cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity.
The purpose of this study was to compare health promotion effects between walking exercise in a forest and aquatic exercise in a heated indoor pool for 6 weeks for healthy adults aged 50 - 83 years. Each 12 subjects were participated in the forest walking or aquatic exercises for about 30 or 60 minutes, respectively, three times a week. Both exercises were performed with heart rate during them keeping under that at anaerobic threshold, which were preliminarily measured. Before and after the exercises for 6 weeks, various physiological parameters were measured. In addition, subjects answered questionnaires of training effects and activities of daily living. The subjects participating in the aquatic exercise tended to have low physical fitness and anxiety for daily living. Health promotion effects common to the forest walking and aquatic exercises were the decrease in percent body fat, increases in muscle strength of plantar flexor and 1-kg leg power, and improvement of anticipatory postural controllability. Specific effects were the improvement of lateral stability during single-leg stance in the forest walking exercise, and that of range of motion on hip joint in standing, muscle strength of dorsal flexor, and aerobic work capacity in the aquatic exercise.