Being a teacher, I have observed the school environment very closely. In school, there is a mason who works in various segments with the responsibility of sweeping the classrooms. She has multidimensional duty which has reduced their attention towards the waste management of the school. As a result, the waste management of the school has become poor and filthy. Most of the students know about it but nobody has paid any due attention. Since long, I have been seeking for how to change the student's behavior to maintain healthy school environment. I have conducted an action research with the purpose of exploring the ways for changing student's behavior toward HSE through performing waste management activities. Fundamentally, observation of the school surroundings, collection of the waste, segregation, disposal scaling/weighting up, audio-video recording etc. has been done as a part of waste management system and process. Strategically, encouraging students to perform the activities and make them self-motivated and motivating them with some kind of prizes was really difficult. However, objectives were accomplished with 4Ps (participation, practice, prolong-engagement and prize). Hence, 4Ps is the best way of changing student's behavior toward HSE which has been claimed through this research. The 4Ps should be operated in a cyclic way while action research is conducted because there is a link among stage of participation, practice, prolong-engagement and prizes. It is, thus, critically important for waste management in school. The more reduction in the quantity of the waste through the waste management activities and the more it brings the changes in their behavior toward HSE progressively. Hesitation in the part of students is taken as a challenge in their motivation towards waste management. There might be ample opportunities of changing their behavior to HSE who participate, practice, prolong-engaging and keeps prizes in mind while performing the activities. Hence, 4Ps is a way of changing their behavior toward HSE. It is equally important to consider that the intersectional initiatives in the course of maintaining healthy school environment, for example- initiative from the closer households, students, teachers, school administration and so on because such intersectional initiatives play vital role to encourage and increase the confidence of the students while they participate in the waste management activities. Their learning in the family also plays a key role to track down their behaviors towards HSE.
This study investigates artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Myanmar and presents analytical data on mercury pollution for the first time. The way of gold mining in Myanmar is detailed. The sampling and investigation areas were Kyaikhto in Mon State, Shwekyin in Bago Region, the middle reaches of the Ayeyarwaddy River in Mandalay and Sagaing regions, and north of Kalewa in Sagaing Region. The total mercury concentrations of river sediments and human hair samples were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Some river sediments were contaminated and the highest mercury concentration of 81 μg/g was found in a sample from Ayeyarwaddy River. The total mercury concentrations in the hair of mineworkers ranged from 0.6 to 6.9 μg/g and the average value was 2.9 μg/g, which is 2.4 times higher than the value of non-mineworkers. Although the data obtained in this study was not sufficient, the results indicated that the environment of Myanmar may be contaminated with mercury that originated from artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Large-scale environmental investigation is required in the near future to determine the detailed situation for water quality and human health.