Online ISSN : 2189-6844
Print ISSN : 0440-8039
ISSN-L : 0440-8039
32 巻
  • ―漱石とコンラッドの共鳴―
    瀬藤 芳房
    1989 年 32 巻 p. 7-19
    発行日: 1989/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Sōseki described Kurtz in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness as ‘a great man’ in one of his fragmentary notes, just as Marlow declared that Kurtz was ‘a remarkable man’. Thus Sōseki showed his sympathy towards Kurtz, the incarnation of the darkness of human degradation. The image of Kurtz as such is strongly reflected in the description of Yassan in Sōseki's Kōfu (The Miner), who is likewise called ‘this respectable Yassan’ by his young follower. Yassan is a sinful man, working in the complete darkness of a copper mine.

     In the same way Professor Hirota, an English teacher, in Sōseki’Sanshirō is nicknamed ‘Great Darkness” by Yojirō, a university student. This epithet, as far as Yojirō is concerned, remains nothing but an ordinary, superficial simile, implying the scholar of ‘great’ knowledge leading a ‘dark’ way of life, unknown to the world. On the other hand Sanshirō, another university student, seems to find a symbolic meaning in the epithet: Professor Hirota is ‘great’ in that he embodies the fundamental, sinful ‘darkness’ of man in the midst of worldly light. Sōseki seems to have adopted the image of the remarkable Kurtz who was darkness itself.

     The combinations of Kurtz and Marlow, Yassan and a youth, Professor Hirota and Sanshirō, form a lineage both of spiritual masters and disciples and of human friends equally sharing darkness. Both writers sharply criticised modern Western civilization which ignores human darkness, and desperately quested for a spiritual lineage connected through the fundamental darkness common to all human beings.

  • ―女性の問題に即しての相互解釈
    小谷野 敦
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 21-34
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Though Natsume Sōseki was a representative scholar of English literature who left many commentaries on Shakespeare’s works, he suggested that the distance of time and space between Shakespeare’s works and us impedes our appreciation. Therefore, although his own work Kōjin and Shakespeare’s Othello share a similar theme, i.e., a husband’s doubts about his wife’s chastity, there is neither evidence of Sōseki’s awareness of this similarity nor any sign of direct influence. Rather, the seemingly Shakespearean theme here should be understood as something Sōseki arrived at independently through his study of human psychology in his writing. Thus Kōjin is a work in which Sōseki challenges the approaches he has hitherto taken in dealing with the problematics of psychological relations by focusing on the theme of distrust of one’s lover. A study of Kōjin and Othello can elucidate their common theme.

     In Othello, Iago succeeds in behaving himself as an honest, sincere man who is sarcastic but not evil-minded. Yet in an official field, he could not help noticing his position in a lower class than that of Cassio. In Kōjin, Jirō’s situation is also that of the man who is not in line to inherit the family estate, while Ichirō is depicted to have been cherished as an heir. Though Jirō’s malice or envy on Ichirō is not overtly described, he is able to entertain the family or relatives and be trusted and consigned to mediate between Ichiro and Nao. His behavior during his conversation with Ichirō, shows a curious similarity to that of Iago before Othello in that both skillfully irritate their interlocutors. Iago and Jirō could be said to represent a lesser power which manipulates a public center from outside.

     But the fact that Iago seems to be steered by the atmosphere Desdemona originates as well as Jirō indicates that, as some critics pointed out, the tragedy between Othello and Desdemona is innate in their relationship. Othello, who not only deplores his own plight but also calls down a curse on marriage itself, resembles Ichirō, who does not ascribe his misery to the personality of his wife. Both of them confess their discontent with their inability to attain their wives’ inner spirits. In his lecture on Othello, Sōseki characterized Desdemona as a Japanese woman who has been educated in a Confucianist way. Just as Ichirō laments his wife’s lack of resistance to his violence against her, we can picture Othello’s complaint of Desdemona’s passivity in the face of his unjust treatment of her. The complaints of the two protagonists originate from the lack of recognition that the relationship between a husband and a wife differs from that of a son and a mother.

  • ―「過客」と「第七夜」をめぐって―
    林 叢
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 35-48
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     “Wild Grasses” by Lu Xun is a collection of prose poems, characterized by their highly symbolical style. Lu Xun took an interest in “The Seventh Night” of “Ten Nights of Dreams” by Soseki Natsume. Its influence can be seen in the work, “A Traveler” in Lu Xun’s book. “A Traveler” and “The Seventh Night” share a similarity in their descriptions of such things as the trip to the West and infinite space. Lu Xun translated Hakuson Kuriyagawa’s comments on literature, which led him again to focus his attention on Soseki and his works. However, “The Seventh Night” elaborates on the anxieties human beings have concerning their existence in modern society, while “A Traveler” describes the will of human beings struggling to find a way of life and a future path for society, in the face of suppression by the old establishment. A difference can be seen here in the two authors’ viewpoints, and Lu Xun’s positive approach can also be seen in his acceptance of Soseki and his works.

  • ―「ブランド」を中心にして―
    内田 真木
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 49-61
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Arishima Takeo published his literary criticism “BRAND”(「ブランド」)in “BUNBU-KAIHO”(「文武會報」),a biannual magazine, during the years 1909 to 1912. This work has been looked upon as suitable material to study his early thoughts. In this work he introduced the dramatic poem “Brand,” written by Henrik Ibsen in 1866, and expressed his view of life, view of history and view of the State.

     Properly speaking, this dramatic poem succeeded to the tradition of European religious plays. But he tried to make his comments from a social scientific point of view. He had interested himself in the social science those several years and his effort was clearly influenced by the then current of European literature, especially, Herford’s criticism.

     He was attracted by the subject of this dramatic poem, the necessity of political reforms, the completion of individual character, and the motto of “All or Nothing.”

     To appreciate the slogan of “All or Nothing,” he had to examine a large number of footnotes written by Herford. Finally he came to the conclusion that this motto was most valuable and determined to lead himself by this maxim. But on the other hand Herford had said “A doctrine such as ‘All or Nothing’ obviously lent itself to the most extreme fanaticism.” There were opposite ideas about it.

     Arishima thought the quality of the fanaticism depended altogether on the spirit in which this rigid and absolute formula was applied to the actual world of growing, relative, and imperfect life.

  • 清水 真佐子
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 63-76
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Treize ans déjà nous séparent de la mort de Malraux. Son temps de purgatoire littéraire est passé. On commence à reconnaître André Malraux comme un des plus grands écrivains français du XXème siècle. Son premier éssai sous la forme épistolaire, La Tentation de l'Occident, écrit en 1926, manifeste déjà l’embryon de toutes ses pensées qui s’épanouiront plus tard. En dépit de ses écrits hermétiques, cette oeuvre charme profondément. C’est qu’elle cache, derrière son titre, La Tentation de l’Occident, une autre structure qui nous projette une autre tentation, celle de l’Orient.

     Mais il est vrai que dans cette œuvre, il n’y a qu’un seul mot, “geishas” qui nous fasse directement penser au Japon. Pourtant, ce livre nous persuade que Malraux voudrait pénétrer la culture japonaise en tant qu’une des composantes de la civilisation orientale, parce que ce texte est constitué de double structure—tentations occidentale et orientale. En témoigne aussi sa forme épistolaire—échanges de lettres entre un Chinois et un Français.

     L’objectif de notre recherche consiste à expliciter cette structure de la tentation de l’Orient que le jeune Malraux conçoit au tréfonds de lui-même, tout en focalisant notre intérêt sur la culture japonaise.

     Nous la recherchons sous les trois angles suivants: –de l’écriture de Malraux, qui transgresse quasiment la grammaire française, –des points communs entre Malraux et Watsuji, entre Malraux et Ashihara, –de la présence de la culture japonaise au temps de la création de l’oeuvre.

     La conclusion serait de mettre en évidence la pensée universelle de Malraux déjà présente en 1926 et qui existera toujours chez lui.

  • ドーシィ ジョン
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 77-88
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     In this essay I survey the vast field of thematology, a traditional approach to literary studies which has traditionally been criticized. First I consider a number of these criticisms: the problem of scope, the problem of evaluation, the problem of the unity of the work, and the problem of the authority of the critic.

     Then I discuss three approaches to thematology: theme as subject, theme as story or plot, and theme as idea. Theme as subject includes words and concepts which are not limited to literature: love, education, war, kingship, death, utopia, revenge, the absurd, etc. Here we ask the question, “What is this work about?” Theme as story or plot is the concrete expression of an idea in a particular context: these people, in this place, doing this and that happening. Here the question would be, “What happens in this work?” Theme as idea means abstract ideas about fundamental human situations: an artist is blessed by the gift of his genius but at the same time cursed, or the more one struggles against fate, the closer one comes to bringing it about. Here the question would be, “What is the larger meaning or significance of the work?”

     Finally, I discuss those aspects of thematology which apply in particular to comparative literature such as terminology (trying to reconcile the literary terms used in various countries), cultural contexts (orientalism vs. occidentalism), and literary types (Oedipus, Antigone, Faust).

  • 大嶋 仁
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 258-244
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー






  • On the Edo Tradition of Passion
    村上 孝之
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 242-229
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー







  • The Meaning of His Encounter with the West
    中山 惠津子
    1990 年 32 巻 p. 228-211
    発行日: 1990/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー