比較文学
Online ISSN : 2189-6844
Print ISSN : 0440-8039
ISSN-L : 0440-8039
最新号
選択された号の論文の27件中1~27を表示しています
論文
  • ―小野十三郎『詩論』・金素雲訳編『朝鮮詩集』との関わりから―
    権 保慶
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 9-22
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Chiheisen (1955) is the first collection of poetry by KIM Si-jong (1929-), a Korean resident in Japan writing poetry in Japanese. It consists of two parts. According to Kim, the second part is composed of what he calls “things more Korean than what foreigners could articulate in Japanese."

    Kim used two poetic methods to change ‘things Korean' into ‘things more Korean.' Firstly, he used images closely related to Korea, such as Chima, Jindallae, and hometown scenery, not in the conceptual framework to arouse emotional feelings but in the context of reality. This unconventional method is derived from ONO Tōzaburō's Shiron (1947) that condemned traditional Japanese poetry and described that lyric poetry is ‘criticism', not ‘feelings'. Kim, who had admired Japanese poetry during the Japanese colonial rule, was greatly influenced by his work.

    Secondly, Kim adapted some lines from modern Korean poetry into historical events such as the Massacre of Koreans during the Great Kanto Earthquake and the Korean War. Kim insists that modern Korean poetry was formed based on ‘Japanese naturalism as aesthetics' under the Japanese colonial rule. Moreover, some borrowings were taken in the way of dissimilating KIM So-un's Chōsen Shishū (1940, 1943, 1953, 1954), an anthology of modern Korean poetry translated into Japanese in the seven-five meter. Kim had been a devoted reader of Chōsen Shishū during the colonial period.

    This paper will explore how ‘things more Korean' indicates decolonization of ‘things Korean' including Kim himself from ‘things Japanese.'

  • ――「鳥、人に教化をする事」を中心に――
    李 澤珍
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 23-37
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Shiba Kōkan (1747–1818), a Dutch scholar and painter in the late Edo period, recorded several fables which are similar to Isoho Monogatari, a Japanese translation of Aesop's Fables, in his writings. None of these, however, precisely matches the text of Isoho Monogatari. For this reason, most previous studies have not recognized the direct relationship between the two. This paper seeks to analyze how Kōkan adapted “Tori-hito-ni-kyōke-wo-suru-koto" (A Bird Preaching to a Man), one of the fables from Isoho Monogatari, in order to clarify the direct relationship between Isoho Monogatari and the fables in his writings.

    In “Tori-hito-ni-kyōke-wo-suru-koto", a bird teaches a man three lessons, and then tests him to see if he understands the lessons. This fable is contained in two collection of essays by Kōkan, namely Shunparō hikki and Mugendōjin hikki. One of his hanging scrolls, tentatively named Isoho Monogatari zu, is also based on the fable. This paper compares these texts with Isoho Monogatari, and shows that Kōkan made deliberate alterations, referring directly to Isoho Monogatari, and that in the process of recording this fable, he adopted only one lesson from the original and removed parts of the story that had little to do with that lesson.

  • ――「犠牲者」を中心に――
    レッキー・ リチャード・ウィリアム
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 38-51
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper examines the social consciousness of Hirabayashi Hatsunosuke's mystery novels. The pre-eminent literary critic of Japanese proletarian literature in its early days, Hirabayashi became disillusioned with the movement after the Great Kantō Earthquake and gravitated instead toward popular literature, particularly Japan's nascent mystery genre. His third mystery novel, Giseisha (“Victim"), tells the story of a low-ranking office worker who is arrested on a false murder charge and languishes in detention with little hope for release. With its unresolved ending and skeptical view of the criminal justice system, Giseisha is said to be influenced by Edogawa Ranpo's Ichimai no Kippu (“One Ticket"), a work which takes its basic concept from Arthur Conan Doyle's The Problem of Thor Bridge but adds a surprise ending which leaves the story's entire resolution in doubt. However, Giseisha also shows the influence of criticisms of the mystery genre by proletarian writers such as Maedakō Hiroichirō and Makimoto Kusurō, who argued that mysteries glorify a legal system which is profoundly biased against the proletariat and maintains the hegemony of the ruling class over the subordinate classes. Maedakō looked to Anatole France's humorous short story Putois and its satirical view of crime as a model for a more socially conscious type of mystery. In the same way, Hirabayashi looked to Anatole France's L'Affaire Crainquebille, a satire of the infamous Dreyfus Affair, as inspiration while writing Giseisha, not only referring to Crainquebille by name but also basing part of Giseisha‘s story on it.

  • 中井 祐希
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 52-66
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Focusing on new material regarding world literature and translation by Tosaka Jun (1900-1945), this article discusses how Tosaka viewed and made sense of world literature and translation in the era of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

    First, I examine “The Theory of Translation (Honyaku no Riron)", published in “The Mita Newpaper (Mita Shinbun)", to confirm Tosaka's view of translation. In his analysis, Tosaka criticized the linguistic standpoint of translation theory in the same period, and it's theory of untranslatability, arguing that it would become a reinforcement of wartime fascism. Tosaka regarded translation, not as a “language", but as the “translation of thought", and considered that internationalism could only be achieved when the “thought" in a discourse or work can be translated.

    Next, I look at “The Character of Japanese Literature; Perspectives on World Literature (Nihonbungaku no Seikaku; Sekaibungaku no Kanten ni Tsuite)", published in “The Monthly Report (Gekkan Bunsho)", to confirm Tosaka's theory of world literature. There he considers national literature that whose literary spirit is diminished when it is translated, whereas world literature retains its literary spirit and thought even after its translation. Tosaka's ideological stance is, therefore, that it is necessary to critically rethink the everyday life by a constant questioning of its translatability and the acquisition of “internationalism" through world literature.

    Finally, I suggest that we can connect Tosaka's translation and world literature theory to recent studies of world literature.

  • ――進化論的言説とウィリアム・ジェイムズ思想の観点から――
    岩下 弘史
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 67-80
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Natsume Sōseki's “ethical individualism" implies respect for the individuality of others. Throughout his life, the question of how we can enlarge the scope of interest for others has been one of his most crucial concerns. This paper attempts to elucidate how this “ethical individualism" was developed through an encounter with contemporary theories.

    First, an examination of Sōseki's notes shows that evolutionary theories are essential for this view. It is especially important to consider Mind in Evolution, written by British sociologist Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, as it illustrates how useful broadening our perspective is for survival. After reading the oeuvre, Sōseki began to contend that we need to broaden our scope of interest.

    Furthermore, it is essential to consider Sōseki's view of literature. He preferred to talk about literature in terms of evolution. He believed that literature has to contribute to the progress of humankind; enlarging the scope of interest for others is one of the ideals of literature.

    Finally, this paper illustrates how William James's masterpiece, A Pluralistic Universe, sheds new light on “ethical individualism." Sōseki maintained that since this view is, after all, an individualism, it causes a feeling of “loneliness." James's view suggests a good solution to this situation. When we focus on the vocabulary Sōseki used in his later years to explain how we should treat each other, it becomes clear that he had adopted James's philosophy.

  • ――エミー・ヘニングスの文学と舞踊――
    小松原 由理
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 81-94
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    Recently, much attention has been directed toward women who were involved in the avant-garde art movement, particularly in the first half of the 20th century. Notably, the literary works of Emmy Hennings are being republished, mainly in Germany. The main concern of the female Dadaist is her scandalous and unparalleled life. She spent her tumultuous life walking from the northernmost German city of Flensburg to big cities of Cologne, Berlin, and Munich, eventually reaching Ascona of Switzerland via Zurich Dada movements̶Ruth Hemus described her as a living example of Dada. Many have focused on the lifestyle of the first half of her life; at the same time, the second half of her life, in which she published most of her literary works, remains unnoticed. Furthermore, the avant-garde nature of her works has also not been fully examined.

    Beginning by elaborating on the history that has been added to her evaluation, this paper attempts to describe, as neutrally as possible, a full picture of Emmy Hennings as a female avant-gardist based on the facts of her work. Specifically, by focusing on the relationship between her vigorous literary activities and her actual dance, I intend to re-evaluate her role in the avant-garde movement. Literature and dance are important linkages that indicate the keyword of transnationalism in the avant-garde art movement of the time, and they are also important elements in unraveling Hennings's avant-garde thoughts. While the close relationship between Zurich Dada and Ausdruckstanz, led by Rudolf von Laban, has been revealed in recent studies, some studies have indicated a different direction in the relationship between Hennings's dance and Ausdruckstanz as well. Christa Baumberger asserts that Hennings's dance is grotesque dance and points out that it is largely different from Ausdruckstanz. However, Hennings's inconsistent and disparate dance expressions, interpreted as representations of the grotesqueness of war, were also a condemnation of the grotesqueness of a woman's body, an existence to be seen. Moreover, the gaze on a woman's body, an existence to be seen, was also presented as the motif in her literary works. The stance of passivity that gave Hennings a negative image, namely the abandoned subject, liberated the body known as a mental cage instead and portrayed the body image as an open possibility that could realize transgenderism as well. Therefore, this paper uncovers the solid existence and involvement of women’s literature works in avant-garde movements, something that has never been referenced.

  • une réflexion sur la genèse du nationalisme de Maurice Barrès
    Takuzo TANAKA
    2021 年 63 巻 p. 262-246
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2022/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー

     フランスの作家モーリス・バレス(1862-1923)のナショナリズムの形成にはいくつかの要因が存在する。「大地と死者」の理論に立脚するバレスのナショナリズムが、1898年初頭から始まったドレフュス事件をめぐる論争において、反ドレフュス派のイデオロギーとして確立されたことはよく知られている。しかし、バレス自身がドレフュス事件前の1896年9月に仏独の国境を流れるモーゼル川の流域を自転車で旅行し、その旅程で1870年の普仏戦争後にドイツに割譲された地域を訪問したことも「大地と死者」の思想の形成に大きな役割を果たしたと考えられる。本論文の目的は、このバレスの自転車旅行を小説化した『兵士への呼びかけ』(1900)の第11章「モーゼル川流域」をおもに取り上げて、バレスのナショナリズムの形成の一端を探ることにある。

     「モーゼル川流域」は主人公スチュレルとその友人サン=フランの旅行記という体裁の章である。彼らのナショナリズムの高まりにおいて重要な役割を果たしているのが、二人が訪れるモーゼル川流域のモニュメント、特にフランス兵の戦没者記念碑などの墓碑である。これらのモニュメントはおもに革命戦争と普仏戦争の記憶を喚起するものであり、前者の栄光と後者の敗北が対比されることで、普仏戦争の敗戦によってドイツに政治的・文化的に侵略されつつあるロレーヌ地方の絶望的な状況が浮き彫りにされる。こうしたモーゼル川流域のモニュメントの数々を訪問したことは、バレスの愛国的な感情を喚起する大きな契機となった。そして、故郷ロレーヌへの愛着や先祖の崇拝に基礎をおくバレスのナショナリズムは、1898年6月に直面した父の死などの個人的な体験によってさらに深められ、1899年3月に行われた講演において「大地と死者」という表現で定式化されるのである。

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