Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major disease in Europe and America. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of PE, and its prophylaxis is performed actively. However, in our country, the prophylaxis of peri-surgical DVT has not been a subject of attention because of the rare incidence of PE. Recently, several articles in the literature indicated PE is a common disease in our country also and active prophylaxis is necessary. A classification of risk of DVT predicts the incidence of postoperative DVT and PE. A combination of the following modalities is effective for prophylaxis and can reduce the incidence of DVT: Heparin, aspirin, warfarin, intermittent pneumatic compression and graduated compression stockings. Prophylaxis is most important in the management of DVT.
Formalin-fixed and Carnoy's solution-fixed muscle larval sections of mice infected with Trichinella nativa were applied as antigen in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA), indirect immunoperoxidase antibody test (IIP), peroxidase-labeled biotin-avidin complex reaction (P-BA), and intra-larval precipitin test (ILP). Carnoy's solution-fixed larval section in P-BA showed more sensitive reaction than those in IFA and IIP. IFA and IIP showed comparative reaction on both sections. It is suggested that the paraffin embedded sections are useful not only for the immunodiagnosis of trichinellosis but also immunohistochemical analysis of antigen and identification of unknown nematode species in paraffin embedded sections.
To elucidate mechanisms of Ca²⁺ antagonist, nilvadipine induced photoreceptor preservation we analyzed altered gene expressions of the retina in RCS rats administrated nilvadipine by mRNA profiling assay. Total RNA isolated from the retina with or without nilvadipine was converted into cDNA. Utilizing DNA microarray analysis methods, we compared the overall expression patterns for 1101 genes that were commonly expressed in rodent. Subsequently, immunohistochemistory and western blot analysis were performed to confirm specific changes observed in the microarray analysis. In the total of genes, the expressions of 21 genes were altered significantly including several genes related with apoptotic pathway. Remarkably, neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), known to suppress the apoptosis in the central nervous system were up-regulated. Immunohistochemistory and western blot analysis revealed more intense staining in nilvadipine-treated retinas for FGF2 and Arc than control rat's retina. Based upon these data, it is suggested that systemic administration of nilvadipine to RCS rats increases the expression of endogenous FGF2 and Arc in retina, and potentially have protective effect to the retinal degeneration.
Seventy-five nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 46 cases were evaluated to determine the usefulness of contrast harmonic imaging ultrasonography (CHI). Vascularity in HCC was observed more frequently by CHI than contrast color doppler (CD) and power doppler (PD). Visualization of artifact or blooming was less in CHI than CD and PD. Main non-visualizing factor was the ability of CHI to determine the location of a nodule (over 7 cm from body surface).
Detection rate of vascularity in HCC by contrast CT was 92%, which was almost the same value as CHI detection at 95%. In 5 out of 6 nodules in which no apparent enhancement was seen by CT, vascularity was observed by CHI. These results indicate that CHI is useful for detecting vascularity in HCC. Based on these
unique features, we believe CHI will be used more frequently for diagnosis and decision of therapy of liver tumors in near future.