All cestodes contain mineral concretions termed calcareous corpuscles and these concretions are likely to be involved in the parasite survival in host environment. Nevertheless, the precise function of calcareous corpuscles is still unclear and has not been studied from the view of biochemistry and molecular biology. This review intends to summarize the published literatures about the properties, formation and function of calcareous corpuscles and to discuss how the biochemical and molecular biological approaches on calcareous corpuscles will be concerned in the host-parasite relationship.
Decorin, a component of the low-molecular-weight proteoglycans (PG) of yellow ligaments was purified,
and the structures of the core protein and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains were analyzed. The crude PG
fraction extracted under dissociative conditions was subjected to DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography,
gel-filtration on Sepharose CL-4B, and Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B chromatography, and decorin was obtained. The
amino-terminal amino acid sequence of decorin was found to be identical to those of human bone PG-II and
human fetal membrane PG-II. The analyses of the GAG chains using two-dimensional electrophoresis on cellulose
acetate membranes, affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a hydroxyapatite column
and gel-filtration HPLC after chondroitinase digestion, showed the presence of dermatan sulfate (DS) chains
and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Further, it was suggested that CS located in the reducing termini and DS in the
non-reducing termini in the hybrid chain.
AIM: To evaluate clinical path (CP) implementation in LADG (laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy) for early gastric cancer with emphasis on length of hospitalization and patient satisfaction. METHODS: An overview type CP for medical staffs (to standardize treatment and care) and a visual one for patients (to promote IC) were developed based on the best clinical cases found in other participating institutes. Sixteen consecutive patients undergoing LADG between April 2002 and March 2004 were studied. For a comparison, 7 other patients undergoing open distal gastrectomy (ODG) were placed on a modified (1 day later initiation of oral intake) CP. RESULTS: Among the 16 LADG patients, 12 had variances: 2 with delayed oral intake (1 suture-line bleeding and 1 delayed gastric emptying) and 10 with delayed discharge due to patients' request. Among the 6 ODG patients, 2 had delayed oral intake (postoperative GI motor dysfunction) and 5 delayed discharge for the same reason. The length of hospital stay (median [range]) was 18.5 [10-46] d for LADG vs. 24.0 [14-55] for ODG (p = 0.15). All patients (100%) were satisfied with the regimen of treatment and care informed through the CPs. CONCLUSION: The CP was feasible in LADG but its proper application in the small community hospital seemed influenced by medico-social factors.
To study rhodopsin (Rho) phosphorylation at multiple sites in vivo, antibodies toward major
Rho phosphorylation sites in vivo, 334Ser, 338Ser and 343Ser were prepared by immunization of authentic
phosphorylated peptides to rabbit. Purified antibodies specifically recognized either the phosphorylated-334Ser,
-338Ser or 343Ser site by ELISA. Immunofluorescence labeling by all these antibodies was exclusively
light-dependent. However, their labeling patterns during light and dark adaptation were different from each other.
Anti-P-Rho334 and P-Rho338 antibodies reacted with retinal photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) adapted by 650
and 5000 lux which caused Rho bleach at approximately 7 and 30% levels, respectively. However. in contrast,
positive immunofluorescence labeling of ROS by anti-P-Rho343 was observed only in 5000 lux light-adapted rat
retina. Similarly, strong, dim and negative stainings of ROS by anti-P-Rho334, P-Rho338, and P-Rho343 antibodies,
respectively, were recognized in light adapted human retina by surgical illumination (approximately at 2000 lux)
obtained from a patient with orbital malignant tumor. During dark adaptation of rat retina from light adaptation,
immunoreactivities toward anti-P-Rho343 had diminished the fastest, followed by anti-P-Rho338 and then
anti-P-Rho334. Our present results indicated that this newly developed method using specific antibodies toward
different sites of phosphorylation is suitable for analysis of Rho phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in vivo.
To evaluate the clinical significance of p53 mutations, we analyzed the relationship of several
clinicopathologic factors to the clinical outcomes in 131 colorectal cancer patients. Exons 5 to 9 of the p53 gene
were studied by the direct sequencing method with capillary electrophoresis. A total of 47 mutations of p53 were
found, in 45 of 131 cases (34%). Mutations were statistically associated with lymphatic invasion (p=0.03) and
lymph node metastasis (p=0.02). Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the patients with p53 mutations were likely to
exhibit shortened survivals, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.078). In our evaluation of each
exon in relationship to survival, p53 mutations in exon 7 correlated significantly with poor prognosis (p=0.041). In
multivariate analysis, p53 mutation emerged as an independent marker for prognostic hazard ratio=1.650 (p=0.015).
However, exon 7 mutations were not related to survival, as well other exons and specific type of mutations.
Investigation of p53 mutation overall was considered to be a clinically useful approach for determining the
prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer.