Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the active life expectancy (ALE) of residents aged 65
and older from a city of Tohoku District in Japan based on changes in their Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
over the course of three years, taking into account the ADL functional recovery rate. Methods: According to
the method of Andrei Rogers, et al., the survey was conducted twice using a questionnaire covering questions
as to ADL independence. The life table was prepared based on the transition probability of ADL by age for
the subject populations to determine the average life expectancy and ALE. Results: Among the independent
persons surveyed first, the average life expectancy was 18.7 and 23.5 years for 65-year-old males and females,
respectively. When the ADL functional recovery rate was taken into account, the ALE stood at 17.2 and 20.7
years for males and females at the age of 65, respectively. Assuming that the difference between the average life
expectancy and ALE represents the duration of dependence, it was calculated to be 1.5 and 2.8 years for 65-year-old males and females, respectively. Conclusion: Comparison of the average life expectancy and ALE with other
areas already reported revealed that the inhabitants of the city studied had a long average life expectancy and
ALE, and a comparatively short duration of dependence.
The cause of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is unknown, but therapeutic treatments have
been established. Nevertheless, difficult-to-treat ITP patients are sometimes encountered. To survey the etiology
of childhood ITP (since 2001) and provide helpful advice to general pediatricians, the Aomori Childhood ITP Study (ACITPS) was initiated in July 2002. The results of an etiological survey conducted in the ACITPS are presented
here. Forty-six ITP patients were registered in the ACITPS between January 2001 and December 2004. Overall,
76% of the ITP patients were under the age of five years old. The platelet (Plt) count distribution was as follows:
< 10,000/μL, 54.3%; 10,000-20,000/μL, 23.9%; > 20,000/μL, 21.8%. First-line therapies were administered as follows:
intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) in 24 of the 25 patients with a Plt count < 10,000/μL; no therapy in 9 of the 10 patients with a Plt count > 20,000/μL; and IVIG in 4 of the 11 patients, steroid administration in 3 of the 11 patients and no therapy in 4 of the 11 patients with a Plt count of 10,000-20,000/μL. About 80% of the patients were improved within 6 months, that is to say acute type.
Synphilin-1 was originally identified as a binding protein of α-synuclein, a major component of Lewy
bodies in Parkinson's disease. Synphilin-1 localizes mainly in the synaptic terminals and is also found in Lewy
bodies. We previously demonstrated the expression of α-synuclein in vascular endothelial cells. The present
study was undertaken to address the expression of synphilin-1 in endothelial cells. Synphilin-1 immunoreactivity
was detected in the vessel walls, particularly in endothelial cells, in postmortem human brain. Expressions of
mRNA and protein for synphilin-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture were demonstrated by
reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction and western blotting. Synphilin-1 is constitutively expressed in
endothelial cells and may have some physiological function in the vascular wall.
We investigated the recognition of schizophrenic inpatients on leaving hospital and occupational therapy. The present study included 84 patients. Sixty (71%) of the subjects answered that they have intention to discharge. Thirty-six (60%) of the 60 patients had anxieties with reference to daily living and their future income. These results suggest that the training of household affairs and the professional training should be included in the program of occupational therapy to decrease anxieties of the inpatients. Seventy-one (85%) of the subjects answered that the occupational therapy had therapeutic effects to their disease. The occupational therapy appeared to be considered as the training for leading social life for the patients who hoped for discharge. On the other hand, the occupational therapy appeared to be considered as the way of changing their mood or refreshment in the ward for the patients who didn't hope for discharge. To develop more effective occupational therapy and rehabilitation to schizophrenic inpatients, the characteristics of their abilities to understand and their personal relationships should be specially considered.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a peptide hormone released from the posterior pituitary, has been suggested to play
important roles in cardiovascular regulation, glycogenolysis and platelet aggregation through its V1a receptor (V1aR). In
this study, we investigated the association of 4 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in V1aR gene (-6951G/A,
-4112A/T, -3860T/C and -242C/T) with hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and glycemic status, and platelet
responsiveness to AVP. Genotypes were determined in 365 hypertensives and 255 healthy subjects, 186 patients with
type 2 DM (T2DM) and 188 non-diabetic control subjects (CS), and 33 young healthy subjects in the Aomori prefecture.
A significant association was found between the SNP -6951G/A and hypertension in nonobese individuals. Multiple
logistic analysis demonstrated SNP -6951G/A as an independent risk factor for nonobese hypertension. One haplotype
H3 (a-a-c-c) was characteristic to hypertension in nonobese. A significant association was found between the SNP
-6951G/A and type 2 DM. Logistic regression also confirmed the significant association of the SNP -6951G/A with type
2 DM. There were a couple of characteristic distributions of heterozygous haplotype combinations in T2DM. In young
healthy subjects, GA+AA carriers of SNP -6951 showed significantly higher HbA₁c levels than in GG. Platelet aggregation
responses to AVP were identical between wild types and variants of any SNPs. These results suggest that -6951G/A SNP
and haplotypes created by 4 SNPs of V1aR gene might confer susceptibility to essential hypertension in nonobese individuals
and type 2 DM. However, these SNPs might not be useful as genetic marker for platelet aggregation heterogeneity.