Objective: This study is aimed at examining Japanese women's screening behavior with a focus on
differences in screening behavior between age groups and on factors associated with the behavior. Method: The survey period was from August 2010 to January 2012. An anonymous questionnaire form was distributed to Woman 20 years or older who participated in cervical cancer screening at medical institutions or examination centers in Aomori Prefecture, Japan and consented to participate in this survey. The survey was designed to investigate respondents' background, screening behavior, and perceived health status. Results: Of 1,287 women who provided consent, data from 1,207 respondents who answered all the survey items were included in analysis (response rate: 93.4%). Their age ranged from 20 to 76 (mean: 37.2) years. Of these women, 75% regularly received screening provided by public health services. Demographically, the proportion of women who underwent regular screening was significantly higher in employed workers (p < 0.05). The proportion of women who underwent regular screening increased with age. The percentage of women who were participating in cervical cancer screening for the first time was significantly higher in those in their 20s than that in the other age groups (p < 0.05). Respondents strongly felt that they were healthy and had a high internal health locus of control. Respondents' age, background, and previous screening experience were associated with their current screening behavior. Discussion: The findings indicate that motivational and other assistance individualized to people's background and age may be effective in motivating women with no previous screening experience to participate in screening and others to continue screening.
Subclinical inflammation and radiographic progression have been described in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical remission state. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of biologics and nonbiologics treatment for reduction of subclinical inflammation estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical remission was judged according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28-ESR. Dominant hand and wrist was
evaluated using a conventional 1.5 or 3T MRI scanner. Synovitis, erosions and bone marrow edema were scored
according to the Simplified Rheumatoid Arthritis MR Imaging Score (SAMIS). Twenty four patients who had
reached to clinical remission with biologics (n=14) or nonbiologics (n=10) were included in the study. There were no
significant differences in DAS28-ESR, Simplified Disease activity Index (SDAI), and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)
-3 between the biologics group and the nonbiologics group at clinical remission. However, SAMIS and bone edema
score in the biologics group were significantly lower than that in the nonbiologics group. Our results suggested that
biologics treatment might be superior to nonbiologics treatment to suppress bone edema and to regulate subclinical
Several researchers have reported in these years that appropriate exercise can decrease oxidative stress, although its mechanism is still unknown. We examined in the present study the influence of 1-hour gymnastic exercise class once in a week for 6 months on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability of neutrophils which causes oxidative stress. Subjects were 29 adults who participated in exercise classes as a part of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2008. Body composition, blood parameters and ROS production capability before, after and exactly half way through the class. The results showed that body fat percentage, blood pressure and total cholesterol decreased, HDL-cholesterol increased significantly and that SOA decreased significantly immediately after the class. It was concluded that the current exercise class was effective for improving lifestyle-related parameters as well as for inhibiting oxidative stress mediated neutrophil ROS production.
An intensive training performed by athletes causes accumulation of physical fatigues, which leads to immunity depression and overtraining syndrome. Especially in endurance sports, physical fatigue tends to accumulate as it takes time to recover from physical conditions after the race or intensive training. In this study, we have investigated the conditions of marathon runners after one week of Ekiden (relay road race) according to the levels of muscle enzymes and serum opsonic activity (SOA). Subjects were 28 top male runners in Japanese University Ekiden. Out of all 28 subjects, 11 of them who had a race before a week of investigation were considered as the race group, and the rest were considered as the control group. Although no significant difference were found in running distance and duration of training among the two groups, muscular enzyme levels were significantly high (p<0.05), and SOA levels of LgCL, PH and AUC tended to be higher in the race group than the control group. This showed the higher damage of the muscle, and a possibility that it may have reflected the increase in ROS production in the race group compared to the control group. In conclusion, there was a possibility that the endurance of athletes were not fully recovered from the muscle fatigue causing increase of ROS production even after a week of the race. Therefore, long-distance runners were suggested to carry out a reduced amount of less-intense, less-frequent training with sufficient rests at least for a week after a race competition.
We assessed the effects of L-glutamine intake on muscle tissues and neutrophil functions of judoists after intensive training. Thirty-five male judoists of university student were divided into two groups; glutamine group (18 subjects) and placebo group (17 subjects). During the 7-day intensive judo training camp, a total of 6g of L-glutamine or placebo per day was given to each subject. Myogenic enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocyte activity (PA) of neutrophils were measured before and after the 2-hour intensive judo practice on the day before and after the training camp. As a result, at pre-practice, levels of all
myogenic enzymes tended to be increased from pre-camp to post-camp in the control group （p<0.05 for CK; p<0.01 for AST, ALT and LDH）, whereas such trend was not seen in the glutamine group. Further, the changing rate (before and after the practice) of ROS and PA tended to be lower in the glutamine group than in the control group after the training camp (p<0.05 for PA; p=0.10 for ROS), however there were no significant differences in those between two groups before the training camp (p=0.25 for PA; p=0.28 for ROS). In conclusion, intake of glutamine during an intensive judo training camp had a protective effect against damaged muscle functions and immune functions.
Recently, laterally spreading tumor (LST) of early colorectal carcinoma has been treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) more frequently. Many cases of early colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinomas, but histological and/or immunohistorogical heterogeneity is often seen in LSTs. In
this study, we analyzed morphological characteristics of 61 lesions of LST-type early colorectal carcinoma by using
histolosical and immunohistochemical procedures. Presence of high grade atypia components was significantly
correlated with depth of submucosal invasion (P=0.0102), and these were predominantly located to the invasive
front (deep part) of the submucosal carcinoma. Allred scores of p53 and Ki-67 labeling indices were increased in the
component of high grade atypia regardless of depth of invasion. Expressions of CDX2 and CD10 were significantly
upregulated in a depth-of-invasion dependent manner, and these tended to be highly expressed in the high grade
atypias. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the majority of LST is histologically heterogeneic. The
component of high grade atypia of LST upregulates cell proliferation, which may leed to increase the malignant
potential of LST for invading the submucosa.
We have measured set-up errors and calculated the planning target volume (PTV) for fixing human body on radiotherapy. The data of 61 patients was analyzed, who were treated with image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) using On-Board Imaging (OBI) system in Hirosaki University Hospital. All averages of setup errors were less than 3 mm and it seemed not to be clinical problems. The maximum values of the PTV margin were 5.9 mm in the breast, and 5.5 mm in the prostate was 6.5 mm in the pelvic cavity. The results showed that set up margin should set within 7 mm for the planning target volume. We compared among three averages of set up errors
on three kinds of upper limb fixture. The difference was 0.3 mm among three set-up errors. However, it was
suggested to be almost equivalent because the value was very small clinically. This study suggests that we should
use patient immobilization devices than thermoplastic shell, considering the cost and convenience when breast
cancer. On this study, set-up margin were calculated precisely in Hirosaki University Hospital. These results seem
to be helpful in planning of radiotherapy.
The relationship between neutrophil function and the muscles damage before and after exercise in judoists was examined. The changes in the body composition, biochemical parameters (neutrophil counts and myogenic enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) etc. and the major
neutrophil immune functions such as oxidative burst activity (OBA) and phagocytic activity (PA) were measured
in 39 male university judoists before (pre value) and after 2 hours of unified exercise loading. Increases in myogenic
enzymes were confirmed after the exercise, which suggested that the muscular tissue damage and degeneration was
caused by the exercise itself. Neutrophil count and OBA increased and PA decreased after exercise. The amount of
change (post value – pre value) of OBA showed a negative correlation with LDH and AST (P<0.01 all) and that of
PA displayed a positive relationship with LDH and AST (P<0.05 all). Following the muscle damage, neutrophil PA
may have increased due to increased biological detritus by phagocytosis such as muscle fragments. The reason for
OBA movement against muscle damage (negatively correlated) may be due to the results of compensating OBA and
PA e.g. increased OBA and decreased PA, or decreased OBA and increased PA.