In order to assess 6-month periodisation of top university ekiden runner, the changes of muscle fatigue and immune functions of 17 male university ekiden runners were investigated in each training period. The investigation was carried out during the normal training period (6 months before the race), before and after the
intensive training camp period (3 or 4 months before the race), at the start of the conditioning period (one month
before the race) and at the end of the conditioning period (10 days before the race). Investigation parameters
were myogenic enzymes, serum opsonic activity (SOA) and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Neither levels
of myogenic enzymes nor immunoglobulins and complements showed any signifi cant changes in each period. The
level of SOA signifi cantly decreased after the training camp compared to before, and tended to recover towards
the race. SOD levels were signifi cantly higher after the training camp and at the conditioning period compared to
before, which might be a reaction against the oxidative stress induced by training. Conclusion, the subjects had good
physical management during the training periods prior to the race from the standpoint of muscle fatigue and immune
functions. Furthermore, the parameters used in this study may be useful to assess runners' physical condition during
a long season of training.
In recent years, Lactobacillales in gut microbiota have been suggested to be in association with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship among obesity, serum cholesterol and gut microbiota in Japanese community inhabitants.
Subjects included 613 inhabitants (249 males and 364 females), who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project in 2007. The gut mircoflora extracted from faeces were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method and allocated to 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Proportions of OUT332 (Lactobacillales) in gut microbiota were compared among strata of percentages of body fat and serum cholesterol after the subjects were stratified by them. These comparisons were performed in the subjects who were ≥65 years old and <65 years old, respectively.
In women who were ≥65 years old, proportions of OTU332 (Lactobacillales) in the lowest stratum of body fat, serum level of total and LDL cholesterol were the highest in their strata.
A large proportion of Lactobacillales in gut microbiota might reduce absorption of cholesterol, leading to a decrease in body fat of them.
Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (BOS) is an autosomal genodermatosis caused by mutations of the LEMD3 gene. This disease is characterized by multiple collagenous nevi in the skin and osteopoikilosis and melorheostosis in the bone. While a number of pathogenic LEMD3 mutations have been identified in BOS families, the pathogenesis causing the cutaneous lesions of BOS still remains to be elucidated. Recently, we have identified in a Japanese BOS family a novel splice-site mutation, resulting in the C-terminal Smad-binding domain deletion. To clarify the pathogenetic mechanism of the cutaneous lesions, we investigate the effect of the LEMD3 mutation on the TGF-β-induced type I collagen gene (COL1A2) expression. Reporter assay showed that the mutant LEMD3 failed to counteract activation of the COL1A2 promoter by TGF-β, whereas the wild type counterpart efficiently suppressed the activation. Recombinant LEMD3 expression experiments demonstrated that both of the wild type and mutant LEMD3 localized to the nuclear membrane. These findings strongly suggest that the collagenous nevi of BOS are caused by the inability of the mutant LEMD3 to counteract the TGF-β-inducible COL1A2 promoter stimulation and that the mutant LEMD3 exerts its pathogenic function at the nuclear membrane.
Background: Obesity represents an important comorbidity associated with negative surgical outcomes. However, little information is available regarding the role of visceral fat in the development of pancreatic fistulae (PF)
after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Methods: The volume of visceral fat in 153 consecutive patients undergoing PD was measured from computed
tomography scans using software for 3-dimensional quantitative analysis. According to the International Study Group
of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) criteria, patients were classified into either the PF group (Grade B or C, n = 48) or the
non-PF group (no fistula or Grade A, n = 105). The impact of the visceral fat volume on the occurrence of PF after
PD was evaluated. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with postoperative PF formation: age (p = 0.021); male sex (p = 0.031); soft pancreas (p < 0.001）; small main pancreatic duct diameter (p < 0.001); and visceral fat volume in the upper abdomen (VFV-UA) (p=0.006). Multivariate analysis identified VFV-UA (odds ratio [OR], 3.746; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.445‒9.716; p = 0.007) as independent risk factors for PF formation after PD. Conclusions: Visceral fat distribution, especially VFV-UA, was significantly associated with the occurrence of PF after PD.
The study was to define plasma insulin level with the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred fifty type 2 diabetic patients and 24 non-diabetic subjects were studied. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in age, gender, the prevalence of hypertension, and serum potassium concentration. Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was significantly higher in type 2 diabetics than that in non-diabetic subjects (10.4±4.9 vs. 7.4±3.7 ng/dl ; p=0.004) ; however plasma renin activity (PRA) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In diabetic patients, PAC correlated significantly with body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma insulin (F-IRI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R), urinary C-peptide excretion (U-CPR), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). PRA correlated significantly with F-IRI and HOMA-R, but did not correlate with BMI, U-CPR, TG, and HDL-C. The additional contribution of U-CPR in predicting PAC was significant after adjustment for age, BMI, F-IRI, TG, HDL-C, and PRA (β=0.204, p=0.016). These findings indicate that hyperinsulinemia may affect the increase in PAC unrelated with obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance that are components of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Nurses work 23.4 hours of overtime on average per month (Japanese Nursing Association, 2009), which is 13.2 hours longer than the monthly average for general workers (The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2013). The purpose of this study is to clarify the current status of the working environment and chronic fatigue for nurses in clinical care. The questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. The contents of the question are attributes, working environment and chronic fatigue. A total of 1676 female nurses working at 117 different general hospitals located in Japan, participated in our survey. It was found that nurses are not able to fully recover from fatigue and chronic fatigue is likely to accumulate when the following conditions are relevant: they are in their 20s, they work under the working environment with overtime (the time to leave work is irregular) for 20 hours or longer on average per month, or they work on a three-shift pattern. It is necessary to adjust the environment in an organization or society including working structure by paying attention to characteristics of individual fatigue.
Background/Aims: We investigated the relationship between problems in daily living such as falls and
the practice of home exercises in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan, to show the requirements for their
effective and sustainable home exercises. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was sent by mail to 159 PD patients who were members of the Miyagi
Prefecture Branch of the Japan Parkinson's Disease Association. The questionnaire included questions on PD
symptoms, chief complaints, history of falls, use of the nursing care insurance program, and performance of exercise
therapy. Findings: The questionnaire response rate was 62.3%. Falls had been experienced by 38 subjects (44.2%) during
the month before the survey and by 52 (60.5%) during the 6 months before the survey. More than half (52.3%) of
subjects had never undergone exercise therapy at a medical institution, and those who continued to undergo exercise
therapy accounted for only 12.8% of all subjects. Thirty-three subjects (38.4%) did not undergo exercise therapy on a
regular basis in any setting. Conclusion: To prevent a decrease in activity due to disuse muscular atrophy, it is important to establish more effective home exercises for home-care PD patients so that they can do these exercises on a regular basis.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major worldwide public health problem. Although CKD
is widely known to cause stroke, evaluation of renal function in stroke patients is difficult. Purpose: We aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD in stroke patients and demonstrate the validity of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurement to assess renal function in patients after stroke. Subjects and Methods: We examined the prevalence of CKD in 545 stroke patients and assessed correlations between eGFR and biochemical data, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and atrial fibrillation (AF). Results: Of the 545 patients, 178 (32.8%) had CKD with a low eGFR ( <60 mL/min/1.73 m²). eGFR was negatively correlated with age, serum uric acid and creatinine concentrations, and positively correlated with hemoglobin levels. Moreover, eGFR was correlated with the prevalence of hypertension and AF, but not diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions: High prevalence of CKD was observed in stroke patients. Measurement of eGFR can be useful in
evaluating renal function in stroke patients.
Pulmonary hypoplasia influences prognosis in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, the abnormality of pulmonary innervation is not clearly understood. We immunohistochemically examined the lungs of CDH model rats, with special reference to sympathetic innervation. Pregnant rats were received nitrofen on
gestational day 9 and the fetuses were recovered on gestational day 22. Control animals received only olive oil.
Fetal lungs were dissected and the weight was measured. Whole mount sections at the level of main bronchus were
immunostained using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody as a sympathetic marker. The proportion of area
of TH-immunoreactive nerve fibers relative to the total lung area was calculated. The mean lung weight of CDH
affected side was significantly lower than that of ipsilateral side of controls. The percentage of TH-positive area of
CDH affected side was significantly lower than that of unaffected side. The reduction of pulmonary sympathetic
innervation may play an important role in respiratory morbidity in CDH.
Object: To investigate the usefulness of ultraviolet-microscopic spectroscopy (UV-MS) of unstained cells
by liquid-based cytology (LBC) to objectively differentiate non-cancer from cancer cells. Study Design: Cultured cells were used as the sample cells: 100 non-cancer cells and 200 cancer cells. The sample measurement region was a 166.4-μm² area in the nuclear region of sample cells. On UV-MS, data of 260, 280, 300, 320, and 340 nm were extracted from the transmittance spectrum of 260-350-nm ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and analyzed. Result: At a 300-nm UV wavelength, transmittances in non-cancer and cancer cells were 79.7 ± 5.0 and 64.1 ± 5.0%, respectively, being significantly lower in cancer cells (P<0.01). On discriminant analysis, a linear discriminant function: Z=0.61 x transmittance (300 nm) - 44.02, was obtained. When the function value is positive and negative, the cell is judged as a cancer or non-cancer cell, respectively. The accuracy of this linear discriminant function was 96.3%, sensitivity was 98.0%, specificity was 93.0%. Conclusions: UV-MS on unstained cells by LBC yields an objective value to discriminate non-cancer from cancer cells. Since LBC is a sample processing procedure which will be increasingly used in the future, we are planning to further investigate its applicability to clinical specimens based on this study.
This study is to be clarified the mechanism(s) of memory improvement by centrally active ACE inhibitor, captopril. We measured the expressed peptides in the rat brain treated with centrally active ACEI (captopril), non-centrally active ACEI (imidapril) and ARB (losartan) by HPLC and TOF-MS. As the result, we detected a large number of substances, which highly expressed in rat brain treated with captopril, by the TOF-MS technique. Molecular mass (m/z) of most of the all substances was less than 3,000. Since all mass number was confirmed as monovalent ions, these values reflected in the mass number derived from the unique substance and were completely different from mass numbers of endogenous substrates, such as LH-RH, substance P, β-neoendorphin, neuromedin B, LVV-hemorphin-7, and amyloid β-protein, which are cleaved by ACE, and vasopressin, which is thought as a substrate for IRAP in brain. However, many Zn²⁺-containing metalloproteases are present in rat brain. There might be those metalloproteases were inhibited by captopril that could form a chelate to the Zn²⁺ in the active center of enzyme. The many mass numbers obtained in this study can be also endogenous substrates for these metalloproteases.