Although conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common mental health problems among children
and adolescents, it still has a very heterogeneous diagnosis regarding its severity, course and presumed aetiology.
Callous and unemotional (CU) traits has been focused as a specifier to designate a more severe and chronic subtype
of CD. Studies regarding CU traits among children and adolescents have been conducted from multiple perspectives
such as genetic, cognitive, emotional, biological and clinical. In addition, several reviews have offered comprehensive
information about CU traits. However, most of those reviews focused not only on CU traits but also on psychopathic
traits, mainly because the concept of CU traits was established relatively recently. There is no review of studies held
in Japan. The aim of the current review is to offer comprehensive information about CU traits from relatively new
studies which have investigated not psychopathy but exact CU traits. This review will also describe the Japanese
studies of CU traits.
There are certain sex differences in the prevalence and severity of immunity-related diseases. Previous
studies have shown the influence of sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, on the immune system.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sex steroid hormones with neutrophil function among
normal healthy subjects in the general population. Subjects included 540 residents (358 males and 182 females), who
participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project in 2014. We examined the association of estradiol and testosterone
with neutrophil ROS production and phagocytic activity. As a result, estradiol and testosterone negatively correlated
with basal ROS production in males and luteal phase females ( >15th day of menstrual cycle), although such trend
was not observed in follicular phase females (<14th day of menstrual cycle) and postmenopausal females. In contrast, the association of testosterone with stimulated ROS production and phagocytic activity was observed only in males. In conclusion, both estradiol and testosterone were found to have an influence on neutrophil function. Furthermore, the association of sex steroid hormones with neutrophil function was found to vary according to the phase of the menstrual cycle in addition to the sex difference.
Early biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs) are divided into three groups: early gallbladder carcinoma (GBC),
early extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (EBC), and early duodenal ampullary carcinoma (DAC). These early
carcinomas frequently show metaplastic changes. However, phenotypic characterization has not yet been examined.
We examined 76 lesions of surgically resected early biliary tract carcinomas (pTis/pT1 tumors according to TNM
classification). The predominant carcinoma phenotypes were classified with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain, and
immunohistochemical examinations (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CD10) were performed. We also analyzed
phenotypes of the surrounding non-neoplastic mucosa. Of the 33 early GBCs, 18 (54.5%) were biliary type, and 15
(45.5%) were metaplastic type （gastric foveolar type/intestinal type） carcinoma. Of the 26 early EBCs, 18 (69.2%)
were biliary type carcinoma, and eight (30.8%) were metaplastic type carcinoma. Of the 17 early DACs, eight (47.1%)
were biliary type carcinoma, nine (52.9%) were metaplastic type carcinoma. Biliary type carcinomas less frequently
showed metaplastic changes, while metaplastic type carcinomas were frequently surrounded by the metaplastic
mucosa. Early GBC and early DAC more frequently showed metaplastic changes, compared to the early EBC. In
conclusion, we speculated that two carcinogenesis pathways of early BTC (GBC, EBC, and DAC): (1) carcinomas
arising from the proper epithelium (mainly EBC) and (2) carcinomas from the metaplastic epithelium (mainly GBC
We made a “Manual to support driving resumption of the stroke survivors (Aomori-version)” (the
manual), and investigated its use for 7 months with targeted occupational therapists (OTs) in Aomori Prefecture.
Seventy-seven OTs participated in the investigation. Six among the 77 OTs used the manual. The number of stroke
survivors supported for driving resumption by these 6 OTs increased 11.2 -fold after providing the manual, and these
OTs answered that the manual was useful. Thirty-three among 71 OTs who didn't use the manual reported that they
were not in the circumstance to use it, and 38 OTs did not deal with the driving support although they treat the
stroke survivors. Approximately 90% of them stated, “I would like to use it if I had a chance.” Most of the comments from the OTs are affirmative, although there were some negative ones. From these results, it was suggested that the usefulness of the manual regarding the easiness to start support of driving resumption for the stroke survivors, although the number of OT was small. We think this manual has a generality for use all over Japan in spite of being an Aomori-version.
This report describes the attitude toward occupational therapy and life satisfaction in patients with schizophrenia. Seventy-three inpatients with schizophrenia were asked questions about their life satisfaction, their attitude toward occupational therapy, and their desire to be discharged. The scores for life satisfaction were high, particularly regarding satisfaction about their environment. In contrast, the satisfaction scores for interpersonal relationships were relatively low. In answer to the questions regarding their attitude toward occupational therapy, 62 patients felt that occupational therapy was effective. This suggests that the study subjects regarded occupational therapy as a form of treatment for their disease. The number of patients who participated in occupational therapy with an active attitude was 35, with an inactive attitude was 30, and with a rejective attitude was 8. There was a significant relationship between the attitude toward occupational therapy and the desire to be discharged.
These findings indicate that many inpatients with schizophrenia regard occupational therapy as a form of treatment. Their desire to be discharged affected their attitude toward participation in occupational therapy. Therefore, it is possible to improve life satisfaction through occupational therapy in such patients.
Objectives: We evaluated the effects of acupressure at two meridian points (KI1 and KI3). Methods: Subjects (11 adult women) were tested twice on different days, once after acupressure and once after bed rest alone. Outcomes were measured by evaluating objective indices (blood pressure, pulse rate, and skin surface
temperature, deep temperature, and blood flow volume in the feet) and subjective indices (comfort and warmth or
cold sensations in the feet), and the temporal changes after intervention were analyzed. Results: There were significant temporal changes in pulse rate, skin surface and deep skin temperatures, blood flow volume, and scores of foot comfort and warmth after acupressure, whereas there were no significant differences after bed rest alone. There were no significant changes in blood pressure after either treatment. Conclusion: Acupressure at these two points is a safe and effective method to warm up the feet.
Transgenic mice experiments have become increasingly popular to research human inherited disease.
However, a number of Japanese researchers have difficulty with the selection of anesthesia, after the classification
of ketamine, probably the most used anesthesia, as a narcotic drug in 2006. Therefore, we compared the effects of
inhalation anesthesia (2% of isoflurane, sevoflurane and enflurane) and intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia (50mg/kg) on the electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood oxygen saturation (SPO₂) of mice. With inhalation anesthesia, the heart rate (HR) and SPO₂ were within an acceptable range. In contrast, the HR significantly decreased after initiation of pentobarbital anesthesia, and gradually returned to a low rate. Importantly, pentobarbital anesthesia significantly lowered SPO₂, and heart rate variability analysis showed unstable beat-to-beat intervals during pentobarbital anesthesia, suggesting that inhalation anesthesia is more suitable for evaluation of cardiorespiratory responses than pentobarbital anesthesia. During anesthesia, propranolol, a β-adrenergic blocker, significantly decreased heart rate. Atropine, a parasympathetic blocker, also significantly increased heart rate. Our data suggest that inhalation anesthesia is suitable for cardiorespiratory analysis in mice.
Backgroud: In Japan, the recommended standard surgical procedure for advanced lower rectal cancer
includes total mesorectal excision (TME) plus central D3 lymph node dissection and bilateral lateral lymph node
dissection (LLND). Laparoscopic LLND is performed in the pelvis, which is an anatomically complex and small
operative field and thus, requires an extremely high level of skill. Laparoscopic LLND has been introduced following
the recent expansion in the application of laparoscopic surgery for advanced lower rectal cancer. Patients and methods: The subject sample comprised 79 patients who underwent lateral dissection, including 61
patients who underwent laparotomic lateral dissection and 18 patients who underwent laparoscopic lateral dissection.
Clinical characteristics and the oncological outcome were compared between groups. Results: The mean surgical duration in the laparoscopy group was 285 min, which was significantly longer than the
165 min in the laparotomy group (p < 0.001). The mean blood loss amount was 131 g in the laparoscopy group, which
was significantly less than the mean amount of 407 g in the laparotomy group (p < 0.001) There was no significant
difference in complications. Conclusion: The short-term outcomes of laparoscopic LLND were good, indicating that the procedure can be
performed safely and is likely to be useful.
Background: There are no reports on the degree of inflammation in the residual rectal mucosa in
asymptomatic UC patients after an operation for ileal pouch anal canal anastomosis (IACA). Methods: We studied the residual rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal mucosa from the surgical specimens of 12 asymptomatic postoperative UC cases. We analyzed the degree of inflammation, including crypt architecture and
mucus content in the rectal mucosa. Results: Two pathological active cases (16.7%), four resolving cases (33.3%), and six remission cases (50%) were
observed in the residual rectal mucosa. In terms of the degree of pathological inflammation in the residual rectal
mucosa, one case (1/12, 8.3%) was upregulated, seven cases (7/12, 58.3%) were stable, and four cases (4/12, 33.3%)
were downregulated compared with the rectal mucosa of the surgical specimens. Conclusions: We determined the natural history of the degree of inflammation on the residual rectal mucosa in
postoperative UC patients. Eight cases (8/12, 66.6%) of asymptomatic UC patients were associated with prolonged
inflammation after an IACA operation in the residual rectal mucosa compared with that in the rectal mucosa of the
surgical specimens. Therefore, we could identify patients with prolonged inflammation in asymptomatic UC cases by
a residual rectal mucosal biopsy.