Hirosaki Medical Journal
Online ISSN : 2434-4656
Print ISSN : 0439-1721
Volume 67 , Issue 2-4
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Review
  • Krisana Asano, Akio Nakane
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 115-128
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     Autophagy, a cellular homeostatic pathway, is emerged as an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens. It can directly eliminate invading bacteria by mediating their delivery to lysosomes. However, successful intracellular pathogens have developed mechanism(s) to escape or subvert autophagy for their intracellular niches. Studies on interplay between autophagy and intracellular pathogens are very important for understanding how infections occur. Particularly, Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of infections. Classically, S. aureus is considered as an extracellular pathogen, but cumulative evidence indicates that this bacterium invades epithelial cells and replicates intracellularly which is relevant to intracellular persistence and chronic infections. A serious therapeutic problem of staphylococcal infections is caused by antibiotic resistant strains which have emerged increasingly in recent years. Thus, new insights in the strategy of S. aureus to interplay with autophagy is urgently required. This review highlights an impact of S. aureus toxins on autophagy. Alpha-hemolysin activates autophagy and prevents lysosome-autophagosome fusion, whereas toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 suppresses autophagosome formation. This opposite function indicates a complicated relationship between autophagy and intracellular adaptation of S. aureus. The possible effects of these toxins on S. aureus infections are also addressed in this review.
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Original Article
  • Shuhei Nozaki, Yoshiki Ogata, Manabu Yonekura, Chong Han, Hidetoshi Ni ...
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 129-135
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     We analyzed the effects of halothane as an inhalational anesthetic agent on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in C57/BL6 mice. Following induction of anesthesia using 2% halothane, the ECGs showed a regular pattern and the heart rate (HR) was within an acceptable range (~500 bpm). The HR decreased with increasing halothane concentration in a concentration-dependent fashion.
     The frequency domain analysis showed that the high-frequency (HF) component decreased and the lowfrequency (LF) component increased in a concentration-dependent fashion. Therefore, the LF/HF ratio increased with increasing halothane concentration, suggesting effects on the autonomic nervous system.
     We analyzed the pharmacological response to sympathetic blockade with propranolol, a typical adrenergic β-blocker, under halothane anesthesia. Propranolol administration resulted in a decreased HR; interestingly, intraperitoneal injection of propranolol (120 μg/kg body weight) resulted in arrhythmia (sick sinus syndrome) during anesthesia with 3% halothane.
     Our results indicate the importance of selecting a suitable anesthetic agent for C57/BL6 mice in pharmacological studies.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 136-146
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 147-152
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Yoshiki Ogata, Manabu Yonekura, Rouichi Yamaki, Chong Han, Tomonori Fu ...
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 153-157
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      We examined the effects of enflurane anesthesia on the mouse cardiac autonomic nervous system using electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Enflurane had a lower effect on heart rate (HR) compared to isoflurane, which is more widely used in small animal studies. Under anesthesia with 3 or 4% of enflurane, administration of propranolol had a significant effect on HR. Enflurane increased R-R interval length in a dose-dependent fashion, and the R-R interval became unstable at high concentrations. Although HR decreased with high doses of enflurane, we observed normal sinus rhythm and no arrhythmia. These results suggest that the effect of enflurane anesthesia is acceptable even though the drug can lead to cardiac instability. No remarkable changes were observed in HR frequency. These results suggest that enflurane anesthesia may be suitable for cardiac autonomic nervous system analysis.
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  • Wakako Fukuda, Mari Chiyoya, Yoshiaki Saito, Saoshi Taniguchi, Kazuyuk ...
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 158-165
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter devices have been developed to overcome the long-term complications of permanent filters. It is of interest to evaluate the retrievability of retrievable IVC filters and how safely the IVC filters indwelled for a long period of time can be retrieved. We reviewed a group of 44 patients, who were selected for ALN retrievable filter implantation and reviewed the indications, efficacy as well as complications.
    Material and Methods: 300 venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients were treated in our institution between 2003 and 2014. IVC filters were inserted in 84 cases (28%) and 44 of 84 patients received ALN retrievable filter implantation. We retrospectively reviewed the indications, efficacy and complications of 44 patients with ALN filters. Results: All 44 patients had deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 39 patients (88.6%) also had pulmonary embolism (PE). The most frequent associated risk factor for DVT was cancer (n=19). The filter was implanted for a median duration of 708.8 days (range 68-1717). While the filter was in place, at least one venous thromboembolic event occurred in 4.5% (2 of 44 patients). Filter retrieval was attempted in 8 patients (18.2%) after a median period of 271.9 days (range 79 - 559). Filter retrievals were successful in all cases.
    Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of ALN filter. It also demonstrated the safety of retrieval after a long-term placement.
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  • Yonmi Nagasawa, Eiki Tsushima
    2017 Volume 67 Issue 2-4 Pages 166-178
    Published: 2017
    Released: May 15, 2021
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      We conducted an observational gait assessment and examined the relationship of gait deviations with physical function and walking ability. A total of 57 stroke patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit, who could walk unaided or under close supervision, were enrolled in the study (37 men; 20 women; 62.2 ± 11.2 years of age; elapsed time since the onset of stroke: 90.9 ± 39.9 days). We combined and partially modified several assessment forms used for gait evaluation. With regard to physical functions, we assessed: lower limb paralysis, sensory impairment, lower limb spasticity, range of motion, lower limb muscle strength, lower limb weight-bearing, and standing balance. We conducted a 10-meter walk test to assess patients' walking ability. In order to identify variables that affect the total gait assessment score, a multiple regression analysis was performed. The following parameters were statistically associated with gait deviations: number of steps required to walk 10 meters (standard partial regression coefficient=0.68), affected side hip abductor strength (–0.23), ankle plantar flexor spasticity (0.18), and maximum weight-bearing rate on the unaffected side (0.16). We established the relationship of gait deviations with physical function and walking ability.
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Abstracts of Meeting of Hirosaki Medical Society
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