The objective of this paper is to identify factors that affect the intention and behavior of nurses in initial
response to radiation accidents/disasters. A questionnaire survey was conducted with nurses working at disaster
base hospitals or nuclear emergency core hospitals and nuclear emergency medical cooperation institutions（ nuclear
hospitals）. A significant effect of intention on behavior was observed in both groups. In addition, the determinant
factor of nurses for their intention in radiation/nuclear disasters was their disposition towards their expertise,
followed by their practical knowledge. However, there was no significant effect of cooperative framework on intention
or behavior. Determinants for behavior were intention and expectations from others in both groups. In the disaster
base hospital group, on the other hand, uneasiness to radiation exposure affected their intention, and practical
knowledge influenced intension and behavior. In contrast, uneasiness to radiation exposure did not affect intention or
behavior, and behavior was not affected by practical knowledge in the group from nuclear hospitals. Thus, our results
suggest that there are factors affecting intention and behavior which could or could not be overcome by education/
training. Measures for a nurse to work with pride as an expert in this field and with social standing are also required
for smooth nursing care in radiation emergencies.
Mesenchymal stem cells（ MSCs） from white adipose tissue（ WAT） have a higher osteogenic differentiation
potential than those from brown adipose tissue （BAT）. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal
differentiation potentials of these cells. In addition, to examine the applicability of these cells for autologous neuronal
regeneration, the mouse hind limbs were assessed for neurological function after adipose tissue was harvested from
the inguinal and interscapular regions. Adipose-MSCs were isolated from WAT of the inguinal subcutaneous regions
and BAT of the interscapular regions in 6-week-old female C57BL/6J mice. The expression of cell-surface markers
on the adipose-MSCs was examined by flowcytometry. The markers examined were CD90, Sca1, CD34, and CD45.
Neuronal differentiation was assessed by immunocytochemistry using NeuN as a mature neuron marker. MSCs
derived from WAT and BAT displayed similar immunophenotypes. Both cell populations differentiated into NeuNpositive
cells（ 16.2% ± 1.0% of the WAT-MSCs and 14.7% ± 2.4% of the BAT-MSCs） in vitro. Harvesting the adipose
tissue did not affect the neurological properties of the hind limbs. These findings indicate that both WAT-MSCs and
BAT-MSCs may be attractive cells for autologous neuronal regeneration.
Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of total arch repair in patients with type I aortic dissection. Methods: A total of 117 patients who underwent total arch repair over a period of 27 years were enrolled and divided
into two groups: 75 patients who underwent total arch replacement （TAR） and 42 who underwent total arch repair
using the frozen elephant trunk（ FET） technique. Univariate and multivariate analyses of outcomes were performed
between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in permanent cerebral dysfunction （5.3% vs. 9.5%） and temporary
cerebral dysfunction （4.0% vs. 2.4%） between the TAR group and FET group. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality
of TAR group vs. FET group were 6.7% vs. 0% （P=0.158） and 10.7% vs. 0% （P=0.049）, respectively. The overall
survival was significantly higher in the FET group（ log rank P=0.034）. The long-term survival and aortic event free
survival rates were not significantly different between the two groups. The independent risk factors for hospital
mortality were age（ P=0.046）, preoperative hemodialysis（ P=0.003）, malperfusion of the carotid artery（ P=0.032）, and
mediastinitis（ P=0.017）. Conclusions: Total arch repair in patients with type I aortic dissection using FET was beneficial by reducing the inhospital
mortality and improving long-term survival rate.
Orexin （hypocretin） is a neuropeptide secreted by hypothalamic neurons that is activated during
motivating behaviors and active waking. Our knowledge of orexin is mainly limited to mammalian species, such as
humans, mice, and rats. In the present study, we cloned orexin and its receptor from the medaka brain. Additionally,
we analyzed the effect of an orexin inhibitor （SB-649868） on spontaneous behavior. The orexin inhibitor decreased
spontaneous movement of the fish, suggesting the importance of the orexin system in spontaneous movement. Our
results indicate that medaka might be a suitable animal model for neurological behavioral studies.
The prediction of the severity of Rhesus E induced-hemolytic anemia is difficult due to low incidence,
although ultrasound monitoring of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity （MCA-PSV） is useful. We report
a case of moderate Rhesus E associated hemolytic disease of newborn even with indicating a high level of MCAPSV
suggesting severe anemia. A 37-year-old multipara woman suspected with severe fetal anemia at 35 weeks of
gestation by ultrasound monitoring. However, the fetus showed no findings of hydrops fetalis. A female neonate was
born at 38 weeks of gestation by transvaginal delivery without asphyxia. The neonate developed moderate hemolytic
disease that was treated with phototherapy, a single dose of human intravenous immunoglobulin and four times of
red blood cell transfusions. Exchange transfusion was not needed for treatment. The anti-E antibody of the baby was
serially detected which became negative at 6 months of age. A comprehensive evaluation of the fetus for prediction
of severity and careful observation for at least six months are crucial in the management of Rhesus E associated
hemolytic disease, considering the limitation of ultrasound monitoring of MCA-PSV.
Post-varicella angiopathy （PVA） is the leading cause of pediatric arterial ischemic cerebral infarction.
However, PVA is considered to be underdiagnosed because of the lack of both sensitive diagnostic procedures
and criteria. We, herein, report a case of PVA-associated arterial ischemic stroke diagnosed by MRA. A previously
healthy 5-year-old Japanese boy was admitted to our hospital with right facial nerve palsy and right hemiparesis,
a transient symptom of ischemic stroke, one month after recovery from chickenpox. The neurological symptoms
recovered completely by conservative therapy. In addition to clinical history, cerebral artery stenosis detected by
magnetic resonance angiography（ MRA） in the recovery phase enabled us to diagnose him with PVA-induced stroke
despite no detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, MRA findings in the convalescent
period are useful in the clinical diagnosis of pediatric PVA-induced stroke.