Five stages of the wood industry in Japan excluding Hokkaido are summarized. 1. The discovery of what woods are available, 2. community resources between local groups, 3. the use of wood for fuel, construction and tools, 4. the introduction of coniferous wood for construction and tools, 5. the increase of wood consumption and the introduction of afforestation accompanied by economic growth. These are linked with Japanese history from the perspective of economic activities.
Vegetation and species diversity in the IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is introduced and reviewed. Shifting vegetational zones towards the polar regions may induce great changes in floristic compositions even with physiognomical changes. Changes in floristic composition might be greater in the present cool-temperate and subarctic regions than warm-temperate and subtropical ones. Comparative studies between the present and past floras have revealed species decomposition within physiognomically comparable vegetations.