Pollen spectra from Sphagnum-polster samples at six mires in the Konsen District, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, are compared. Pollen spectra at the Yururi-toh mire on an unforested island showed high ratios of pollen tranported long-distance, with 20% of tree pollen from areas southern than southern Hokkaido. Pollen spectra at the Habomai and the Toyosato mires in an unforested area were qutie similar to that of the Yururi-toh mire. The tree pollen ratio at the Cape Ochiishi mire were higher than at the Yururi-toh mire, but long-distance transported pollen occurred similarily as at the above three mires. Here Picea pollen occupied 16% of tree pollen, reflecting the existence of surrounding Picea glehnii mire forest. The tree pollen ratio at the Kiritappu and the Bekanbeushi mires near large woodland were less than at other mires, because herb pollen is supplied more from within these wide mires than tree pollen from outside. At these two mires pollen from areas southern than southern Hokkaido occurred slightly less than at other mires. Thus, within unforested areas, long-distance transported pollen occur more and percentages of respecitve tree pollen types vary less between study sites, and estimation of these may allow demarcation between woodlands and meadows.
We analysed 902 coffin boards of 257 tub-shaped and 178 box-shaped wooden coffins used in the graveyards for commoners at the Sugen-ji and Shoken-ji sites, Tokyo, and discussed the influence of the social hierarchy and the shortage in timber resources on timber usage in Edo during the early modern Edo period. Tubshaped and box-shaped coffins were mainly made of Cryptomeria japonica and of Abies and Pinus densiflora, respectively, different to the coffins of the Shogun and Daimyo families. During the second half of the 17th century to the early 18th century, tub-shaped coffins at both graveyards were mostly made of taxa probably brought from natural forests along the Kiso and Tenryu valleys, such as Thujopsis dolabrata. In later periods, they were made of taxa grown in surrounding mountains of Edo. Boards of tub-shaped coffins were equally thick or became thicker in later ages, not reflecting the scarcity of timber resources. These trends seem to have resulted from the strengthened forest regulations after depletion of natural forests throughout Japan during the 17th century, the extensive plantation of Cryptomeria japonica started at the beginning of the 18th century, and the establishment of a local commercial system in the vicinity of Edo in later periods.