Humans and Nature
Online ISSN : 2185-4513
Print ISSN : 0918-1725
ISSN-L : 0918-1725
Volume 12
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 1-12
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 15, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy was studied at 10 localitie saround Mt. Hachibuse in the northwestern part of Hyogo Prefecture. Stratigraphic and lithological descriptions at these localitie sa,nd petrologica lanalyses were carried out for 21 Pleistocene to Holocene tephra layers. Based on these data, we have identified several previously known marker tephras from volcanoes in Kyushu and Daisen Volcano in the San-in Distric tT.hey are the Kikai-Akahoya Ash (K-Ah), Aira-Tanzawa Ash (AT), Daisen Sekigane Pumice (DSP), Daisen Namatake Pumice (DNP), and Ata Ash (Ata), in descending strartigraphic order. Immediately above the AT tephra, there are two air-fa ltlephra layers derived from Daisen Volcano. These tephras can be correlated with the Daisen Higashi-Daisen Pumice (DHg) and the Daisen Sasaganaru Ash (DSs). Below the DSP, we found two pumice layers containing small amounts of cummingtonite phenocrysts. They are probably identical with the Daisen Okutsu Pumice (DOP) and/or the hpm2 tephra layer in the lowermost part of the Daisen Volcanic Ash Group.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 13-30
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    The Maejima Formation is the Tertiary marine sediments distributed in Maejima Island, Ushimado-cho, southern Okayama Prefecture, and unconformably overlies the pre-Tertiary granitic rocks. This formation is subdivided into the Lower Conglomerate and Sandstone Member (less than 30m) and Upper Sandstone Member (ca. 30 m) on the basis of the lithofacies. The litho- and bio-facies of the Maejima Formation indicate that the Lower Conglomerate and Sandstone Member and the Upper Sandstone Member were deposited in rocky nearshore waters affected by strong currents and in sandy ones affected by weaker currents, respectively. This vertical paleoenvironmental succession suggests the initi aslcantness and subsequent increase of terrigenous clastic ssupply during the deposition of the Formation. The precise geologic age of the Maejima Formation is stil luncertain, while this formation has been referred to the First Setouchi Supergroup (Miocene). The possibility that the Maejima Formation is the Paleogene is also pointed out, taking into account the molluscan assemblage from this formation and the latest geochronologic data of the Paleogene strata in adjacent areas.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 31-38
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    The Kotari Peat Beds are distributed along the Takeda River in Hyogo Prefecture, western Japan. The peat beds have been well known as one of the strata that yielded plant macrofossils indicating the coldest climate since the Pleistocene in the Kinki District, but have not been studied in detail. The Kotari Peat Beds are defined in this paper as the more than 10m thick alternating beds of peat, clay, sil ta,nd sand and gravel that are unconformably overlain by the Holocene coarser gravel. The beds show two major upward-fining cycles (the upper and lower parts), each of which is composed of sediments deposited along river channels, on floodplains and in back swamps, in ascending order. The Aira-Tn Tephra (24-25 ka BP) covering the beds and AMS-14C ages of these beds reveal that the upper and lower parts of the Kotari Peat Beds were deposited some time before 25 ka BP and before at least 44 ka BP, respectively. A wellpreserved fossil insect assemblage was recovered from the lower part, as well as plant macrofossils of seeds of Menyanthes trifoliata L. and nuts of Pinaceae. The assemblage is composed of 19 specimens identified as 9 species, including Pterostichus prolongatus Morawitz and Hydrochara libera (Sharp). This suggests the paleoenvironments of shallow ponds or marshes surrounded by colonies of Menyanthes trifolia tLa. and pine tree woods spread in back swamps along the Takeda River during the depositional period of the lower part.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 39-54
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    A lucidophyllous forest in the upper reaches of the Ayaminami River, Miyazaki Prefecture, was studied in order to clarif ydistributio nof the lucidophyllous elements and species richness along the altitudina lgradient. We studied 59 plots of 225m2 from 180m to 830m above sea level .We recognized 17 species groups by the similarity of each distributional pattern of frequency(%) of occurrence and mean coverage (%) of each species along the altitudina lgradient .Species groups of 1 to 7 were mainly distributed in the low mountainous areas. Especially species group 1, which was composed of Randia cochinchinensis, Piper kadzura, Ardisia pusilla, Uncaria rhychophylla and others, was restricted to the low areas from 170m to 200m. Species groups 9 to 15 were dominantly distributed in the upper mountainous areas. In the middle mountainous area, species group 16 was distributed. As a result of comparison of mean temperature of the coldest month (°C) at the upper limit of each lucidophyllous element on Mt. Kurinodake with Ayaminami River, there is littl edifference in the critica lvalue of each lucidophyllous element between the two regions. Species richness (number of species) per 225m2 ranged from 30 to 68 and decreased abruptly from low to high altitude. There were 155 species of lucidophyllous elements in the study plots in the upper reaches of the Ayaminami River. This number of species was very high in comparison with the number of species on Mt. Kurinodake and others.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 55-62
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    Unusual appearance of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus) has seemed to increase after the latter half of the 1990s. Since black bears are endangered in western Japan, the viewpoint of protection should be considered along with the avoidance of fatal and injurious human-bear encounters. Prediction about moving-site-selectivit yof irregularly wondering black bears may help responsible administrates and local inhabitants when they select better countermeasures. In this study, we examined predictability of the moving-site-selection of the animals using 73 encounters between humans and an irregularly wondering bear recorded in areas of southeastern Hyogo including Rokkou Mountain, northern Osaka and southwestern Kyoto, in the period of June 29 to October 6, 2000. The predictabili twyas estimated from a model obtained by logistic correlation, with vegetation classifie dinto 27 types and human density as independent variables and the bear used or not used as objective variables. Present individual recorded chose three types of forest vegetation as moving-sites: Japanese cedar - Japanese cyress afforestation, Quercus serrata dominant forest and Pinus densiflora dominant forest. The bear may choose these forests not as habitat but as escape cover. Selected moving-sites also overlapped small-scale residential sections adjoining the forests. On the other hand, the bear avoided places characterized by high human density.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 63-72
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    Density of Sika deer has increased in Japan since the 1970s, and it has caused serious damage to agriculture and forestry since the 1980s. We studied the relationships between Sika deer density, hunting pressure and damage to agriculture in Hyogo Prefecture in 1999-2000. To ascertain the relationship between deer density and hunting pressure, we analyzed data corresponding to 4km (NS) X 5km (EW) grids. The hunting pressure on Sika deer tended to be intense in the grids where deer density was high. An increase in deer density in a grid was affected by hunting pressure on females in a wide range including neighboring grids, rather than that on males and hunting pressure in the grid. The deer causing damage to agriculture seemed to exist within 2.5 km from the border of farms. The higher the proportion of Japanese cedar or Japanese cypress plantation in forest areas around farms was, the greater the damages to farms by deer. Based on these results, we discuss how we should apply them to wildlife management and what we should study to supplement the limitation sof existing research.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 73-80
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    In Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture, voluntary associations are active and take deep interest in Machidukuri (Community Building). The study is based on a survey of 23 voluntary associations in Sanda City. We surveyed associations about their activitie sv,iews, management, and relations with community councils. As a result, we can classify the associations into four types. They have differences in motivation of the inauguration, and relations with community councils. The first type is established by a public association. The second type is the cultural class. The third type is the circle related with the community council. The last type is the circle of interest. In some types, we found the factors of the participation in the town planning. It is remarkable that the motivation of a public association ,and a voluntary association in the other area is effectiv ein the first type.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 81-90
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    The vegetation of Satoyama (coppice forest, rural forest, summergreen secondary forest) in Sanda, Hyogo Prefecture, was managed by citizen participation for the purpose of restoring the original physiognomy of the forest and keeping the richness of species in the forest. Three stands of 100m2 were set in the forest which were identified with Quercetum variabili-serratae (Quercus serrata - Quercus variabili sforest). About 13 persons studied the vegetation of a stand from a phylosociological point of view and managed the vegetation by cutting lucidophyllos shrubs and bamboo grasses. The time required was about three hours.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 91-104
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
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    The warm temperate and subtropical zones in Japan were covered by a forest dominated by evergreen broad-leaf trees of Castanopsis, Pasania, Quercus(Cyclobalanops), Cinnamonum, Persea, etc. This forest is called the evergreen broad-leaf forest, or the lucidophyllous forest. Up to now, the lucidophyllous forest has been studied by many authors from a phytosociological, ecological or taxonomical point of view. However, there has been no list of all the component species of the lucidophyllous forest. In order to clear critica lconditions of the component species, we made a list of all the component species of the lucidophyllous forest in Kyushu and northward in Japan according to red data books of plant species, an atlas of Japanese flora, phytosociological papers, illustrate dbooks of Japanese flora, and a lis tof loca lflora.
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  • 2001 Volume 12 Pages 105-162
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 30, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
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