Species composition and species richness were studied in the lucidophyllous forests on Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture. In total, 40 quadrates were investigated. The lucidophyllous forests were classified into Machilus type forest (Machilus thunbergii-Ficus superba Comm.), Castanopsis type forest (Hydrangeo-Castanopsietum sieboldii) and Cyclobalanopsis type forest (Illicio-Distylietum racemosum). Machilus type forest was characterized by the presence of Litsea japonica, Alocasia odora, Elaeagnus pungens and 8 other species that were resistant to salt breeze and absence of Castanopsis sieboldii and Cyclobalanopsis species. This forest was distributed on the coastal area. Castanopsis type forest was characterized by the presence of Meliosma rigida, Lasianthus fordii, Hydrangea grosseserrata and 21 other species. This forest was distributed on the lowland. Cyclobalanopsis type forest was characterized by the presence of the vascular epiphytes which were Mecodium polyanthos, Lysionotus paucifl orus, Hymenophyllum barbatum and 5 other species, and the presence of Symplocos myrtacea and others. This forest was distributed on the mountain districts. The mean number of lucidophyllous elements per quadrate (100m2), which were indicative of species richness, in Machilus type forest, Castanopsis type forest (II-2) and Cyclobalanopsis type forest were 21.4, 56.6 and 34.8, respectively. The lower species richness of Machilus type forest and Cyclobalanopsis type forest was caused by the salt breeze and the low temperature, respectively. The highest species richness of Castanopsis type forest on Yakushima Island among the lucidophyllous forests at Yakushima Island and northward was due to the high temperature.
The tenth and the fi nal report of the series treating mosses of Seram and Ambon Islands includes the Bartramiaceae (four genera and eight species), Brachytheciaceae (1-1), Bryaceae (6-16), Ditrichaceae (2-3), Erpodiaceae (1-1), Hylocomiaceae (1-1), Hypnaceae (6-9; only a part), Mniaceae (3-5), Orthotrichaceae (6-24), Regmatodontaceae (1-1), Splachnaceae (1-1), and corrections/additions to the previous reports.
We discriminated forty-seven species of Early Permian foraminifers, 29 fusulines and 18 non-fusuline foraminifers, in 14 limestone samples collected at seven localities in the western part of Mt. Ryozen, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Among them 20 species of fusulines are described and their systematic problems are discussed. They include Pseudoschwagerina ryozenensis n. sp. and Paraschwagerina? sublineata. The former has a large and inflated fusiform test characterized by its irregularly fluted septa that produce a few chamberlets. Tha latter is important to consider taxonomy and phylogeny of schwagerinid species with infl ated test.
Cirsium japonicum is one of the gynodioecious herbs. We clarified the morphological differences
between the female and hermaphrodite florets by an observation of their flowering stages in C.
japonicum. Movement of stamen and pistil is basically same in both female and hermaphrodite fl orets, i.e., the fi laments shrank, and the styles expanded and contracted, as the fl owering stages progressed. In all the female fl orets, stamens are degenerated as to be not able to release the pollen. The degenerated stamens were recognized to divide into three types in the form. It was suggested that gynodioecy was robably evolved through several steps of degeneration of male organ. We observed that both the female and hermaphrodite flowers produced nectar from the nectar glands at their base of corollatube and also both were visited by insects. Therefore, insect-visitors can probably pollinate the fl owers without regard to plant sex. Female fl ower gave birth to both female and hermaphrodite fl ower of next generation. It was supported that male sterility was inherited by nuclear genes.
From 2003 to 2004, faunistic survey of the dung beetles were performed in Oki Islands. We recorded 1 species of the family Trogidae, 1 species of the family Ochodaeidae, and 24 species of the family Scarabaeidae. Among them, Trox niponensis Lewis of Trogidae and Rhyparus azumai azumai Nakane and Caelius denticollis Lewis of Scarabaeidae are newly recorded from Oki Islands. Trogidae is recorded from Oki Islands for the fi rst time. Then, the species unrecorded from San’in mainland are Aphodius (Pharaphodius) rugosostriatus Waterhouse, Aphodius (Trichaphodius) comatus Ad. Schmidt, A. (A.) mizo, S. japonicus and C. denticollis. It is very interesting that comparatively large species distributed in the mainland San`in, Copris spp., Phelotrupes (Chromogeotrupes) auratus (Motschulsky) and Phelotrupes (Eogeotrupes) laevistriatus (Motschulsky), have not been collected in this survey.
Plant species were sampled in the Pananjung Pangandaran Nature Reserve during the periods of
January (20 days) and September/October/November (36 days) in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation
year of 1997. Thirty four families, 85 species were identifi ed.