The genus Trismegistia is a member of the Pylaisiadelphaceae (or Sematophyllaceae sensu lato) and can be distinguished from allied genera (Brotherella, Mastopoma, Pseudotrismegistia and Wijkia) by upright or obliquely ascending secondary stems with more or less developed stipes arising from prostrate primary stems; an often sharp differentiation in shape among stipe-, stem-, and branch leaves; distinctly bordered and mostly strongly serrate, dentate, or spinose leaf margins; strongly inflated, reddish brown alar cells of which the outer ones are segmented in several rows; setae up to 6 cm long, smooth; capsules mostly ovoid or short cylindrical, straight to weakly curved with superficial stomata; hypnoid peristome; and small spores. The genus is distributed in tropical Southeast Asia and some Western Pacific island groups. Nine species are recognized; T. brachyphylla M. Fleisch., T calderensis (Sull.) Broth., T. complanatula (Mull. Hal.) mall. Hal., T lancifolia (Harv.) Broth, T. malayana H. Akiyama, sp. nov., T. maliauensis H. Akiyama & Suleiman, T. p anduriformis (C.H. Wright) Broth., T plicata H. Akiyama, sp. nov., and T. spinosodentata (Zanten) H. Akiyama, stat. nov. Species with wide distribution ranges were divided into morphologically and geographically distinct infraspecific entities: two types of T. brachyphylla (Western- and Eastern-type), five varieties of T lancifolia (var. lancifolia, var. austlariana var. nov., var. everettii var. nov., var. pseudoplicata var. nov., and var. valetonii comb. nov.), three varieties of T calderensis (var. calderensis, var. rigida comb. nov., and var. subintegrifolia comb. nov.), and two varieties of T. panduriformis (var. panduriformis and var. prionodontella comb. nov.). The interrelationship among Mastopoma, Pseudotrismegistia, Trismegistia, and Wijkia is briefly discussed.
Limestone conglomerate of the Permian Maizuru Group in the Oye area, Fukuchiyama City, Kyoto Prefecture is divided into two main types based on the difference of their matrices as well as that in other areas. Limestone conglomerate with a calcareous argillaceous matrix yields Lepidolina kumaensis, L. takagamiensis, and other foraminifers characteristic in the Lepidolina kumaensis fauna. Presence of Colaniella parva contained in this conglomerate as a bioclast indicates that the limestone conglomerate having the Lepidolina kumaensis fauna in the Middle and Upper formations of the Maizuru Group ranges into the Lopingian in age and is not restricted to the Capitanian (Midian) as previously thought. Pre-Capitanian fossils are exclusively found in limestone conglomerate with an arenaceous matrix in the Upper and Gujyo formations of the Maizuru Group. Various forms of foraminifers from the Early Carboniferous (Serpukhovian) to Early Permian (Artinskian) have been identified in the Oye area. Two species of Lepidolina, L. kumaensis and L. takagamiensis, are systematically described from the limestone conglomerate of calcareous argillaceous matrix.
The ocean ebb and flow is induced by the tidal force due to the tractive force between the earth and the moon or the sun, which varies in a sinusoidal manner twice a day. At the same time, the force deforms the elastic rock plate of the earth surface, which could be a trigger of an earthquake. In the present statistical investigation of past earthquakes around the world, it was found that the occurrence of earthquakes has the highest event rate at the phase of the force minimum. In addition, there are some partial distributions of the events in the world with regard to the occurrence phase and the direction of the tidal force, which suggests a matched condition proper to the respective regions. In a simple model calculation of earthquakes, the tidal force is nearly the same with or somewhat lower than the increment per day of the shear stress of the rock plate at the critical state, being caused by the plate movement due to the mantle convection, which is sufficient for the triggering. The ratio between the tidal force and the stress increment is higher in a bigger earthquake, and the occurrence is limited in a narrower phase of the force variation, which provides a more intimate correlation. The direction of the tidal force at a time of an earthquake can be explained by the friction law between the adjacent rock plates.
The Fukuchi Peaty Beds have exposed along the upper reach of the Fukuchi River in the Chugoku Mountains at Shirakuchi, Shiso City, Hyogo Prefecture. They are composed of organic sandy clay with minor amounts of sand, and include a lot of plant fossils. Morphology and refractive index of glass shards contained in the beds have revealed they had deposited between 20 and 7.3 ka. Three AMS-14C dates from the plant fossils also indicate the deposition had begun at 9,140 to 9,435 cal BP in the early Holocene and continued at least until 8,457 to
8,638 cal BP with a very rapid sedimentation rate of 7 to 16 mm/yr. The landslide occurred at Shirakuchi between 9,140 and 9,435 cal BP is thought to be due to either a large earthquake by the Yamasaki fault zone or more probable torrential rainfall. The debris flow deposits dammed up the Fukuchi River, resulting in an elongate lake about 200-m wide and 500-m long at its maximum. This ancient lake had been buried rapidly with debris supplied from surrounding mountain slopes and plant remains. The Fukuchi Peaty Beds are thought to be parts of
such filling deposits of the lake.
Species composition and species richness were studied in the Persea type lucidophyllous forests on their southern distributional limit in Kagoshima, Miyazaki and Kochi prefectures and their northern distributional limit in Niigata, Yamagata, Akita, Miyagi and Iwate prefectures. In total, 121 quadrates were investigated. The Persea type lucidophyllous forests were classified into the Fico superbae-Persetum thunbergii Miyawaki 1998, the Arisaemato ringentis-Persetum thunbergii Miyawaki et al. 1971 and the Polystico-Persetum thunbergii Suzuki et Wada 1949. The Fico superbae-Persetum thunbergii was characterized by the presence of Trachelospermum
gracilipes var. liukiuense, Maesa tenera, Psychotria serpens and others, and was distributed on Yakushima Island and Tanegashima Island. The Arisaemato ringentis-Persetum thunbergii was characterized by the presence of Ophiopogon ohwii, Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium and Rohdea japonica and the absence of the differential species of the Fico superbae-Persetum thunbergii, and was distributed on Kushima, Nichinan, Ashizuri and Muroto. The Polystico-Persetum thunbergii was characterized by the presence of Ardisia japonica,
Ophiopogon planiscapus, Dryopteris erythrosora and Dryopteris lacera, and was distributed in the Tohoku region. These three associations were distributed along the coast. The mean number of lucidophyllous elements per quadrate (10010, which was indicative of species richness, in the Fico superbae-Persetum thunbergii, the Arisaemato ringentis-Persetum thunbergii and the Polystico-Persetum thunbergii was 21.4-36.1, 28.6-33.5 and 2.8-10.0, respectively. The lowest species richness of the Polystico-Persetum thunbergii was caused by the salt breeze and the low temperatures in the area where this association was distributed.