For evaluating the basin environment as habitats of Satoyama insects, biodiversity was examined
for cavity-nesting wasps and bees in the Mukogawa river basin using tube trap-nests. We subdivided the river basin into 6 sections; proximal and distal areas of each of the lower, middle and upper river reaches, and compared the community structure of trap-nesting wasps and bees among these sections. In both areas of the lower river reaches, species richness and diversity of wasps and bees were markedly lower. In the areas of the middle and upper river reaches, higher species richness of wasps and bees was maintained, but the community of the distal area in the middle reaches decreased similarity in nesting frequency and brood cell production. Furthermore, we compared the composition of different dietary groups in trap nesting species, grouped by the type of food provisioned for their larvae, among the sections, and found higher diversity of different dietary groups in the proximal area of the upper reaches than in the other area. These results suggest that the proximal area of the upper reaches represents a habitat most suitable for cavity-nesting wasps and bees among the areas of the Mukogawa river basin.
We investigated relation between micro-habitat heterogeneity and the benthic macro-invertebrates community at a concreate-lined urban stream, Ikejiri River that flows through Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates with quantitative method and measured environmental factors such as vegetation cover ratio, depth, river-bed substrate subdividing the microhabitat into three types, that with vegetation cover, completely concrete cover and artificial small pool. Fifty taxa were recognized and the richness was the highest in the first type and the lowest in the third-type. The effects of the vegetation cover ratio for the number of taxa in each site by using Piecewise linear regression analysis showed that the richness was unexceptionally high more than 8% in the threshold value for the ratio against lower richness in less than 8%. We also performed the DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) to make clear the ordination of the benthic assemblages. Ordination plot by site-score showed clearly different relative positions of three micro-habitat types. Correlation analysis between first axis of DCA and the environmental factors indicated positive relation with depth and negative with the vegetation cover ratio in the first axis. Ordination plot by speciesscore resulted the appearance of diagnostic indicator species to each habitat type. Our results revealed benthic community structure varied within partial instream habitat types, and suggested that small scale
and local restoration such as by recovering vegetation cover and by setting up a small artificial pool might be effective tools even in a concreate-lined urban stream.
The Furen Limestone exposed in Yatsu-cho, Usuki City, Oita Prefecture is contained as an exotic
block in the Jurassic siliciclastic rocks of the Okugawachi Formation in the Southern Chichibu Belt.
In addition to the known Early Permian (Asselian) fusulines, Middle Permian (Wordian) foraminifers
of eight species of fusulines and seven species of non-fusuline foraminifers were newly found from
the limestone. Among them, Neoschwagerina craticulifera, Verbeekina verbeeki, Chusenella cf.
conicocylindrica, and Pseudodoliolina sp. are systematically described.
Rikuzentakata City Museum suffered catastrophic damage by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, and the museum had nearly lost many valuable specimens that have a possibility of
contributing to the development of study and the recovery of post-earthquake. To salvage the herbarium specimens of that museum, the total of 30 museums and universities in Japan were engaged in the restoration operation of the herbarium specimens. Nobody experienced such a restoration work before, and useful information on the restoring method was not accumulated though it was required to salvage those specimens carefully and quickly. In this report, we record the restoring method constructed in a series of work implemented in the Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo in detail, and we want this to become a reference when a similar situation is generated in the future. Moreover, after it is re-recognized that there are many local museums with academic importance, the problem with which we have to solve in the future is considered.
Trichopterids have evolutionarily been adapted to inhabit in aquatic environments by selecting their case materials and structure which are specialized in each genus or species. Effective functions of the case are suggested to protect against predators, to enhance respiratory efficiency, and to tolerate desiccation. Larvae of Lepidostoma crassicorne belonging to Lepidostomatidae transform thier case material from leaf to bark on the way of final instar, though little has been revealed on transforming case materials and its ecological implications. This study has made clear the seasonal change on the case-building behavior of Lepidostoma crassicorne throughout a year in the natural condition. Our results indicated that (1) final(5th) instar larvae appeared in any season , (2)individuals which utilizing the bark first appeared in May, (3)these individuals increased their number and attained the maximum in July-August, and (4)no individuals utilizing bark were recognized in December. The clear seasonal changes were distinguished in the bark utility despite the high variability. The overlapping between high rate of the bark utility and diapause stage suggests the benefit of bark utility as case materials in relation
to tolerate against the dry condition in summer due to drought and high temperature in a headwater stream.
Limestone conglomerate of the Permian Maizuru Group in the Oye area, Fukuchiyama City, Kyoto Prefecture is divided into two main types based on the difference of their matrices as well as that in other areas. Limestone conglomerate with a calcareous argillaceous matrix yields Lepidolina kumaensis, L. takagamiensis, and other foraminifers characteristic in the Lepidolina kumaensis fauna. Presence of Colaniella parva contained in this conglomerate as a bioclast indicates that the limestone conglomerate having the Lepidolina kumaensis fauna in the Middle and Upper formations of the Maizuru Group ranges into the Lopingian in age and is not restricted to the Capitanian (Midian) as previously thought. Pre-Capitanian fossils are exclusively found in limestone conglomerate with an arenaceous matrix in the Upper and Gujyo formations of the Maizuru Group. Various forms of foraminifers from the Early Carboniferous (Serpukhovian) to Early Permian (Artinskian) have been identified in the Oye area. Two species of Lepidolina, L. kumaensis and L. takagamiensis, are systematically described from the limestone conglomerate of calcareous argillaceous matrix.