This paper provides 47 type illustrations, and taxonomical notes for 36 species of Chaetomitrium
from Malesia, based on morphological observation of type materials. Key to the species of 39 accepted names is also provided.
In February 2014, I conducted a set of auditory tests in order to confirm listening desirability in hearing 26 persons plus one auditory-agnostic person. Bias was persent in the age structure and
sex ratio: females biased 50 yrs mode subject. Questions consisted of digital recordings of atural
voices emitted by professional and volunteer announcers with artificially synthesized speech newly created. Female voices were significantly more understandable than male voices in nature. There was no bias between both artificial sexual-imitated synthesized voices. In any cases, natural voices were significantly more understandable than artificially synthesized voices. Artificially synthesized voices, however, become significantly more understandable, provided that it is with kanji-and-kana sentences and pictogram. Recitation and rhythmical song had no significant differences. In the future, it is desirable to present pictures and symbols for communication-support with sounds in emergency evacuation especially for the universal use.
In order to establish standard nest traps for tube-nesting bees and wasps, we evaluated the efficiency and attractiveness of three different nest-trap types for sampling bees and wasps. Bundle type traps, in which 35 bamboo tubes of four sizes sorted according to diameter were bundled haphazardly, attracted less bees and wasps to nests than curtain type traps, in which bamboo tubes of each size were vertically arranged to form four ‘curtains’. The trapping efficiency of the sub-bundle type, in which bamboo tubes were bundled for each size, was similar to that of curtain type traps. Bundle and sub-bundle type traps tended to capture bee and wasp species with preference for large tube size, whereas curtain type traps were effective at capturing various species with different preferences for tube sizes. Our results suggest that the curtain type is better for trapping tube-nesting bees and wasps.
The individual growth pattern and longevity of the Japanese eight-barbel loach Lefua echigonia,
an endemic and endangered species in Japan, were evaluated both in the field and in captivity. The field survey using an individual identification-recapture method was performed five times between November 1999 and September 2002 in a small marsh in the Kako River system, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The captured individuals ranged from 17.9 to 66.9 mm in standard length, and the recapture rate ranged from 4.5 to 10.8 %. Individuals of ca. 30 mm in November 1999 had grown to ca. 50 mm by December 2000. Individuals of ca. 50 mm in December 2000 had grown to ca. 57 mm by September 2002. Three reared individuals of 40.6 to 45.1 mm, estimated to be 0 to 1 years old in November 1999, grew to 61.7 to 64.4 mm by May 2005 in tanks, at which time they were estimated to be 6-7 years old. The potential longevity of this species in the field is more than 6 years.
On October 31st, 2013, we unexpectedly observed attempted predation of two juvenile Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) by adult crested goshawks (Accipter trivirgatus), in Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. The goshawks flew over a group of feeding lutungs, attempting attacks only on juvenile lutungs from the rear, while emitting tweeting calls. The attacks involved two different birds (probably a pair) in turn from different directions. The attacks by the goshawks were repeated six times during our observation period (between 13:51 and 13:58), but none of the attempts was successful. During the attacks, no other lutungs in the group showed any anti-predator behavior (such as emitting alarm calls or escaping) against the goshawks perhaps because their body weight (6-10 kg) was much larger than that of goshawk (0.4-0.6 kg). To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of hunting-related behavior to primates by this raptor species.