Humans and Nature
Online ISSN : 2185-4513
Print ISSN : 0918-1725
ISSN-L : 0918-1725
Volume 4
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 1-25
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In order to use Imperata cylindrica (Chigaya) for the conservation and creation of the environment, current studie son Imperata cylindric ain taxonomy, autoecology, phytosociology, weed science, agrostology etc. are reviewed and discussed. Imperata cylindrica is a harmful weed widely distributed from the tropical zone to the temperate zone of the world. In Japan, the range of the species is from Okinawa to Hokkaido. The speciesis divided into two varieties based on the presence or absence of hairs on the node of culm. One is var. koenigi iand the other is var. cylindrica .Imperata cylindric atype grassland are classifie dinto five phytosociologica lclasses ,Miscanthetea sinesis, Glehnietea littorali sV,iticetea rotundifoliae ,Artemisietea principis and Chenopodietea. Imperata cylindric agrassland belonging to Miscanthetea sinensis are developed on embankment slopes, river terraces, roadside along paddy fields etc. where weeding by cutting is carried out two or three times a year. This weeding grassland is reported as a new community , Imperata cylindrica― Erigeron annuus community which is characterized by the presence of Erigeron annuus, Ixeris dentata et al. It seems that this community is available as soil binder on embankment slopes, a model of wild flowers for landscaping and as grassland biotope
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 27-56
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Fluvial terraces distributing extensively along the Hidakahorobetsu and Motoura Rivers in southern Hidaka, Hokkaido were investigated by the tephrochronological and geomorphological method to reveal their formative periods and processes. Based on the data obtained and on the river profile sreconstructed from terrace surfaces and the present river-bed, the change in the river response to sea-level and climatic change during the Late Quaternary was discussed, focusing on the period from 20 to 60 kyr.B.P.
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 57-61
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The oviposition behaviors and breeding habits of two rhynchitid weevil species, Involvulus apertus and /. singularis are described and illustrated. The larval morphology of the latter species is also illustrated. Shrub species Symplocos coreana is the common host plant, the young leaves of which are utilized by the two weevils in different ways. The female of I. apertus lays eggs in the leaf midrib without cutting. Its larvae bore into the midrib and stem of the leaf. In the case of I. singularis, the female cuts the stem before and after oviposition. Its larva makes a mine on the leaf. The leaf-mining larva is recorded for the first time in the subtribe Rhynchitina.
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 63-70
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The trap-nes ttechniqu ei scommonly used to investiga ttehe life-histo raynd behavior of wasps and bees rentin gin plant stems or pre-existin gholes in wood. This study intends to discus sth eusefulnes sof thi stechniqu efor evaluatin genvironmental-informati oinn local areas, using tube-rentin gwasp and bee richnes sas an indicato rof natura lcondition sW.e analyzed richnes sof tube-rentin gwasp and bee in the four differen ttypes of loca lareas; new town area, urban area, rural areas in Sanda city. The results are as follows, l) In new town area tube-rentin gwasp and bee decreased their number of individua lasnd species richness, as compared with rural areas. 2) The wasps and bees had not been trapped at the center zone of urban area and they were trapped only in the flagmented forest of the area. 3) Eumenid wasps, which are large wasps preyin gon leaf-feedin gcaterpillars, decreased especial ltyhei rnumber of individua lin new town and urban areas .On the other hand, the small wasps preying on small wandering spiders, such as Trypoxylon and Auplopus, were dominant groups in those areas. We may conclude that anaysis of tube-renting wasp and bee richness is useful for estimating of natural conditions in the local area.
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 71-79
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Utilization patterns of trap-nests by some aculeate species were studied at the secondary growth forest on the hilly area of Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture, using bamboo stems as trap-nests. A total of 30 trap-sites at five block locations were selected. They were layed at intervals (2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 m) along the summit of the hill. Each block was arranged 40 m apart its neighboring blocks. Traps were exposed in a field situation from late May to early December. Five species were obtained from these trap-nests: Anterhynchium flavomarginatum, Auplopus sp. , Chalicodoma sculpturali sD,ipogon sp. and Orancistroceru sdrewseni. Among these, Auplopus sp. was the most frequent occupant of trap-nests in terms of the number of trap-sites, stems used, and brood cells produced. The mean number of stems utilized per trap-site increased with between-trap-distance in C. sculpturalis, in contrast to Auplopus sp. which did not show such trait sin stem utilizati opnatterns. A simila rtendency was also found in the number of brood cells produced per trap-site. These differences may arise due to factors such as, effective area of trap-nest, foraging range, abundance of resources, etc. All species preferred the middle and large sized tubes (more than 6 mm in diameter) , except Dipogon sp. Several problems are discussed here concerning the application of trap-nest techniques to environmental evaluation.
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 81-97
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In order to clarify the effects of cutting frequency on growth, floristic composition, the number of species, species diversity, life-form and biomass of the grassland dominated by Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii on embankments, field experiments were conducted at the Naka river in Tokushima Pref. from 1989 to 1992. Six experimental plots differing in cutting frequency and season were set in the grassland. In the plots of no cutting and one cutting every two years, the coverage of Imperata cylindric avar. koenigi ireduced, three years after experiments had been started. Especially, in the plot of no cutting, the dominant species had changed from Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii to Miscanthus sinensis. In a plot of two cuttings (June, October) per year, the number of species and the species diversity increased. Seasonal change was distinctly recognized in the floristic composition except in plots of no cutting and one cutting every two years. Early-summer aspect was characterized by the appearance of Agropyron tsukushiense var. transiens et al. and the autumn aspect was characterized by the appearance of Setaria glauca et al.
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  • 1994 Volume 4 Pages 99-124
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The Yaeyama Islands have been called the province of poetry and song since ancient times. The islands are a treasury of folklore that has attracted many scholars for many years. The islands are rich in folk songs that deal, humorously or ironically, with the small animals living near human habitats. Among the innumerable songs about crabs in particular, the ' amparunumidagaama yunta' song is most popular. Amparu is a mangrove tideland located about 10 km northwest of Ishigaki City and is a paradise for coastal fauna and flora. The song describes the morphological appearances and behavioral characteristics of 15 species of small crabs at Amparu, and personifies them in a manner unique to the genre of yunta songs in the Yaeyama Islands. There is still some uncertainty about the identities of the crabs in the song. To try to identify the species, we studied the folkzoological context of the song in the vicinity of Amparu on Ishigaki Island.
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