The present study concerns the use of conserved forest fragmented by residential development,
and attempts, from the twin viewpoints of ecology and human behavior, to establish guidelines
for conservation and use to be applied at the stages of land use surveying, design and
management. The study area was the Flower Town district of Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture.
In terms of land use, it was found that the reduction of forested area accompanying forest
fragmentation had led to a decline in the number of tree species present, and that the visual
appreciation of conserved forest was influenced by its proximity to residential sites and its ease
In terms of design, it was found that residents tended to prioritize the function of conserved
forest as a habitat for plants and animals, but also that they favored its use as a human
amenity of conserved forest accessible on an everyday basis.
In terms of management, it was found that the higher the amenity value of the forest, as
measured by the condition of the forest floor, the greater the willingness of residents to
participate in maintenance activities .This suggests that, to encourage such participation, a
public-friendly program linking environmental education with recreational use would be
It is therefore apparent that the optimum scale and location of conserved forest, and
guidelines for its use, must be examined from both the ecological viewpoint, of the forest as
the habitat of plants and animals, and from the human amenity viewpoint. By applying the
above findings to the case study of the Flower Town district ,an attempt was made to establish
concrete guidelines for the conservation and use of conserved forest in the development of
The line-grid method is a sampling technique which determines the size distribution of coarse
river-bed sediments. We first estimated the range of the error of this method and determined
the minimum number of sampling particles necessary to obtain objective accuracy.
Therefore, at least 300 particles are sufficient for most samples from coarse river-bed sediments, when the error( ft ) is within 10 percent of the mean diameter(X).
Secondly, we propose the most suitable procedure in selecting a gravel sampling site to be as
follows- 1) An alternate bar along the studied reach of a river is first classified into four areas
(A, B, C, and D) by observing the sedimentary structure of its surface sediments; 2) Next,
based on the micromorphological characteristics of the bar, it is classified into I , II , and III
zones; 3) The combination of the two divisions thus leads to systematic classification of bars
into 7 types or more. After this procedure, sampling lines are set up on the A area of the I
zone or the B area of the II zone, which can be recognized and occupy relatively large areas at
all measuring bars along the whole reach of a river. In the former area, the brink of the
channel flow should be avoided as a sampling site; 4) 300 particles are selected along the
sampling line. The sampling interval should be larger than the longest (a axis) length of the
largest gravels predominant in the selected area.
The above procedure is also useful for selecting 100 particles for conventional measurement.
In such case, the measurement should be carried out in the same selected area.
The Daic comprise the majority of the Asian races liveing in the 6 countries of Thailand,
Laos, My an mar, Vietnam, India and China in the area situated between latitude 7 ° to 26°N
and longitude 94° to 110°E. The Daic were once viewed as the origin of the Japanese because of
the former s close affinity with the cultural complex of broad-leaved evergreen forest .Therefore,
this has attracted scientific study has not yet been conducted. The aim of the present study
way to examine Daic life culture through detailed analysis of their physical environment, such
as villages and dwellings, with special reference to both Black Thai and White Thai. Although
the Thai live in an area that has undergone many changes as a result of French colonial
administration, the Vietnam War with America, and resent remarkable economic development,
they have inherited their own tradition not only in their way of life but also in their village
landscape and dwelling form. This study clarified the physical and spiritual aspects of the
construction of villages and dwellings among the Black Thai and White Thai, based on field
research carried out in 1993 and 1994. It is also a monographic description of how they have
maintained their traditional life in its physical and spiritual aspects. This study shows that the
Thai of Vietnam have an obviously different life culture from that of the Daic living mainly in
Thailand, as so far as is known. The way of life of the Daic is also partly examined.
Tube-nesting wasp and bee biodiversity was studied in a new town in the hilly area of Sanda
City, Hyogo Prefecture, for use in discussing guidelines for conserving these satoyama (rural
forest) insects in the fragmented forests. A total of 77 bamboo trap-nests were set in the new
town, along the environmental gradient- fragmented forests in the surrounding and central
zone, grass fields, green belts and residential zone. 13 species were obtained, among which
Auplopus carbonarius, Anterhynchium flavomarginatum and Isodontia nigella were the most
frequent. The species diversity was the highest in the fragmented forests, and lowest in the
green belts. The distribution pattern showed that the insect presence or absence at trap-sites
were accounted for by the coverage of forest area and the degree of isolation (distance to
surrounding forests), respectively. On the basis of these data, the methods of conserving the
insects in the fragmented forests are discussed.
Alnus sieboldiana forest plantations, distributed in the new town of Takarazuka, Hyogo
Prefecture, were investigated from the phytosociological viewpoint, in order to clarify the actual
conditions, floristic composition and ecological properties .The results show that it is reasonable
to treat these plantations as a new municipal forest community (Alnus sieboldiana-Ligustrum
vulgare community). The community is floristical cyharacterized by the presence of Ligustrum
vulgare, Mahonia japonica ,Ligustrum lucidum, Euonymus japonicus, Laurus nobilis, Nandina
domestica etc., which are endozoochory, and the absence of Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus glauca etc. which are acorn-making trees (barochory) . The distinguishing contrasts between the
community and other communities occur in life form spectrum, disseminule form, species
diversity, naturalized plants ratio and gardening-landscaping plants ratio. It is especially
remarkable that the community contains many gardening-landscaping plants whose seeds are
dispersed by birds. The community is recognizably a typical municipal forest developed in an
The available information on wild species in suburban areas is insufficient for effective
discussion of biotope plans or ecological conservation plans. To solve this problem, some
method which can estimate ecological potential may be useful.
We built the probability models that describe the relation between the reproduction of some
tube-nesting wasps and the local landuse distribution in newly developped residencial district.
Using this model, we visualized the reproductive potential of one of these species in local area.
This paper discusses both the utility of this method and the methodology itself.
To conserve Clematis patens community, which is in danger of extinction, the actual
conditions concerning its distribution, floristic composition and habitat conditions were
investigated in Sanda, Hyogo prefecture. The results show that the Clematis patens community
is distributed in seven locations, and characterized by the presence of Clematis patens and by the
dominance of Cocculus orbiculatus ,Lonicera japonica, Akebia trifoliata, Rosa paniculigera, Ilex
serrata, Deutzia crenata etc. This community developed mainly as a mantle community of the
Alnus japonica-AInus traveculosa community distributed in the wetland. This community belongs
to Rosetea multiflorae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973.