Humans and Nature
Online ISSN : 2185-4513
Print ISSN : 0918-1725
ISSN-L : 0918-1725
Volume 7
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 1-22
    Published: 1996
    Released: September 29, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The present study concerns the use of conserved forest fragmented by residential development, and attempts, from the twin viewpoints of ecology and human behavior, to establish guidelines for conservation and use to be applied at the stages of land use surveying, design and management. The study area was the Flower Town district of Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture. In terms of land use, it was found that the reduction of forested area accompanying forest fragmentation had led to a decline in the number of tree species present, and that the visual appreciation of conserved forest was influenced by its proximity to residential sites and its ease of access. In terms of design, it was found that residents tended to prioritize the function of conserved forest as a habitat for plants and animals, but also that they favored its use as a human amenity of conserved forest accessible on an everyday basis. In terms of management, it was found that the higher the amenity value of the forest, as measured by the condition of the forest floor, the greater the willingness of residents to participate in maintenance activities .This suggests that, to encourage such participation, a public-friendly program linking environmental education with recreational use would be desirable. It is therefore apparent that the optimum scale and location of conserved forest, and guidelines for its use, must be examined from both the ecological viewpoint, of the forest as the habitat of plants and animals, and from the human amenity viewpoint. By applying the above findings to the case study of the Flower Town district ,an attempt was made to establish concrete guidelines for the conservation and use of conserved forest in the development of residential environments.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 33-41
    Published: 1996
    Released: September 29, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The line-grid method is a sampling technique which determines the size distribution of coarse river-bed sediments. We first estimated the range of the error of this method and determined the minimum number of sampling particles necessary to obtain objective accuracy. Therefore, at least 300 particles are sufficient for most samples from coarse river-bed sediments, when the error( ft ) is within 10 percent of the mean diameter(X). Secondly, we propose the most suitable procedure in selecting a gravel sampling site to be as follows- 1) An alternate bar along the studied reach of a river is first classified into four areas (A, B, C, and D) by observing the sedimentary structure of its surface sediments; 2) Next, based on the micromorphological characteristics of the bar, it is classified into I , II , and III zones; 3) The combination of the two divisions thus leads to systematic classification of bars into 7 types or more. After this procedure, sampling lines are set up on the A area of the I zone or the B area of the II zone, which can be recognized and occupy relatively large areas at all measuring bars along the whole reach of a river. In the former area, the brink of the channel flow should be avoided as a sampling site; 4) 300 particles are selected along the sampling line. The sampling interval should be larger than the longest (a axis) length of the largest gravels predominant in the selected area. The above procedure is also useful for selecting 100 particles for conventional measurement. In such case, the measurement should be carried out in the same selected area.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 43-64
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The Daic comprise the majority of the Asian races liveing in the 6 countries of Thailand, Laos, My an mar, Vietnam, India and China in the area situated between latitude 7 ° to 26°N and longitude 94° to 110°E. The Daic were once viewed as the origin of the Japanese because of the former s close affinity with the cultural complex of broad-leaved evergreen forest .Therefore, this has attracted scientific study has not yet been conducted. The aim of the present study way to examine Daic life culture through detailed analysis of their physical environment, such as villages and dwellings, with special reference to both Black Thai and White Thai. Although the Thai live in an area that has undergone many changes as a result of French colonial administration, the Vietnam War with America, and resent remarkable economic development, they have inherited their own tradition not only in their way of life but also in their village landscape and dwelling form. This study clarified the physical and spiritual aspects of the construction of villages and dwellings among the Black Thai and White Thai, based on field research carried out in 1993 and 1994. It is also a monographic description of how they have maintained their traditional life in its physical and spiritual aspects. This study shows that the Thai of Vietnam have an obviously different life culture from that of the Daic living mainly in Thailand, as so far as is known. The way of life of the Daic is also partly examined.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 65-71
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Tube-nesting wasp and bee biodiversity was studied in a new town in the hilly area of Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture, for use in discussing guidelines for conserving these satoyama (rural forest) insects in the fragmented forests. A total of 77 bamboo trap-nests were set in the new town, along the environmental gradient- fragmented forests in the surrounding and central zone, grass fields, green belts and residential zone. 13 species were obtained, among which Auplopus carbonarius, Anterhynchium flavomarginatum and Isodontia nigella were the most frequent. The species diversity was the highest in the fragmented forests, and lowest in the green belts. The distribution pattern showed that the insect presence or absence at trap-sites were accounted for by the coverage of forest area and the degree of isolation (distance to surrounding forests), respectively. On the basis of these data, the methods of conserving the insects in the fragmented forests are discussed.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 73-87
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Alnus sieboldiana forest plantations, distributed in the new town of Takarazuka, Hyogo Prefecture, were investigated from the phytosociological viewpoint, in order to clarify the actual conditions, floristic composition and ecological properties .The results show that it is reasonable to treat these plantations as a new municipal forest community (Alnus sieboldiana-Ligustrum vulgare community). The community is floristical cyharacterized by the presence of Ligustrum vulgare, Mahonia japonica ,Ligustrum lucidum, Euonymus japonicus, Laurus nobilis, Nandina domestica etc., which are endozoochory, and the absence of Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus glauca etc. which are acorn-making trees (barochory) . The distinguishing contrasts between the community and other communities occur in life form spectrum, disseminule form, species diversity, naturalized plants ratio and gardening-landscaping plants ratio. It is especially remarkable that the community contains many gardening-landscaping plants whose seeds are dispersed by birds. The community is recognizably a typical municipal forest developed in an urban environment.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 89-96
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The available information on wild species in suburban areas is insufficient for effective discussion of biotope plans or ecological conservation plans. To solve this problem, some method which can estimate ecological potential may be useful. We built the probability models that describe the relation between the reproduction of some tube-nesting wasps and the local landuse distribution in newly developped residencial district. Using this model, we visualized the reproductive potential of one of these species in local area. This paper discusses both the utility of this method and the methodology itself.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 97-104
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    To conserve Clematis patens community, which is in danger of extinction, the actual conditions concerning its distribution, floristic composition and habitat conditions were investigated in Sanda, Hyogo prefecture. The results show that the Clematis patens community is distributed in seven locations, and characterized by the presence of Clematis patens and by the dominance of Cocculus orbiculatus ,Lonicera japonica, Akebia trifoliata, Rosa paniculigera, Ilex serrata, Deutzia crenata etc. This community developed mainly as a mantle community of the Alnus japonica-AInus traveculosa community distributed in the wetland. This community belongs to Rosetea multiflorae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973.
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  • 1996 Volume 7 Pages 105-113
    Published: 1996
    Released: October 31, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
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