Humans and Nature
Online ISSN : 2185-4513
Print ISSN : 0918-1725
ISSN-L : 0918-1725
Volume 9
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 1-8
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We studied the relationship between Christmas decorations in private gardens and the residential environment by surveying residents in Kobe-Sanda International Garden City, Hyogo Prefecture. We found that Christmas decorations greatly contribute to improving the quality of the residential environment. Residents who have a more positive attitude towards Christmas decorations tend to have a stronger interest in the streetscape. We also believe that Christmas decorations in private gardens will become more widespread in the future with the increasing westernizatio nof homes and gardens in new residentia lareas and with the realizatio nof housing plans aimed at households with children.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 9-18
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The Paleogene Kobe Group in the Sanda Basin, southern Hyogo Prefecture, is composed mainly of non-marine clastic rocks, such as conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone and tuff. We made a stratigraphic survey of the group in the southwestern part of Tojo-cho, Kato-gun, Hyogo Prefecture, based on detailed tracing of tuffs. Four tuff layers were discerned within the Yokawa Formation of the group' the Ansei-ike, Yabu, Shinjo and Shikahori-ike Tuffs, in ascending order. As a result of our precise tracing of these tuff layers, we clarified that the Yokawa Formation in the study area inclines gently southward, although previous researchers have proposed a westward-inclining structure.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 19-26
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    investigated at Mt. Saikoji-yama, Hyogo, Japan, the northern distributional limit. In order to clarif ythe populational characteristic sat Mt.Saikoji-yama, we compared it with a population at Aya, Miyazaki, southern Kyushu, the distributiona lcenter. Then a geographic distributio nmap of this species was made upon examination of many specimens and compilation of various documentation. This species appeared in a lucidophyllous forest on a mountain ridge. Population density (138 individual trees, 0.0092/m2) was low at Mt. Saikoji-yama. As well, the size there was very samll. However, DBH size (7.5cm), tree height (5.5m) and age (65 years old) were greater than the population at Aya (0.171/m2, 4.5cm, 4.4m, 52 yr. , respectively). The Saikoji-yama population had fewer saplings than the Miyazaki population. S. myrtacea grows very slowly compared to S. prunifolia, although this species is highly tolerant to shade and lives in the lucidophyllous forest. This species is distributed from Kyushu to Shikoku, Chugoku and Kinki districts, and southwestern Japan, except for around the Seto Inland Sea. We bilieve that the refugia of this species in the last glacia lstage existed not only in the Kyushu district ,but also in Shikoku or the southern part of the Kinki district
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 27-32
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Spatial distribution and tree height of landscaping tree species that escaped from man-made landscape were investigated in 31 fragmented secondary forests in Flower Town of Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture. A total of 22 species and 2,385 individuals were distributed in the forests, and most of them were ornichorous tree species. Almost all the landscaping tree speceis were seedlings or saplings. Ornithochorous tree species, Rhaphiolepis umbellata and Lignstrum lucidum, were mainly distributed within 100m from the nearest mother tree planted around the forests, while barochorous tree species, Castanopsis cusp id a ta var. sieboldii and Quercus my rsinaefolia, were mainly distributed within 30m. These distributional patterns seem to reflect their seed dispersal patterns. We discuss the planting methods of ornichorous tree species for conserving fragmented forests.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 33-56
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The Rokko Mts. and Awaji Island have been formed under an east-west compressive stress field accompanied by the right-lateral and vertical components of faulting along the Rokko-Awaji fault system. At the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, the Nojima earthquake fault appeared almost along the pre-existing Nojima fault within this fault system, which was previously known to be active. Many precise surveys have been performed after this earthquake to describe the various features of the earthquake fault, such as the detailed locality and behaviour of faulting, amount of displacement, and other geomorphic and geologic characteristics. In addition, the following subjects are discussed based on these features: the segmentation of the faulting, its total length, mode and amount of displacement at both ends, and the relationship between the Nojima fault and the other faults on the east side of the island. From the measurement of three dimensional crustal deformation around the earthquake fault using air-photographs, it was revealed that the island in the northwestern side of the fault moved eastward up to 1.7m and dislocated vertically from ―1.2m to + 1.7m, whereas the southeastern side was displaced southward up to 2.5m and uplifted up to 1.7m. These acute crustal movements are not parallel to the fault trace. The three dimensional crustal deformations were at least in the order of lm, even in sites more than 1 km apart from the fault trace. Many kinds of surveys also revealed the characteristics of the Nojima fault including the fault topography, recurrence time of faulting, total displacements, and the subsurface geology. Especially, seismic reflection surveys and three deep-core drillings across the fault clarified the subsurface structure around the fault, and the characteristics and inclination of its shattered zones. The Nojima fault accompanied with a present fault scarp higher than 250m had started remarkable vertical displacement after the deposition of the Osaka Group. It has repeatedly moved at a recurrence interval of ca. 2,000 years during the Late Quaternary. Total right-lateral displacement attains at least 300m, being almost equal to or less than its total vertical dislocation. The studies on the fault planes and shattered zones revealed dips of the planes, mode of faulting, and the relationship between the amount of displacement and the width and structure of the shattered zones. Furthermore, detailed observation and analysis of the drilling cores now in progress indicate the structure and dip of the fault at relatively deeper levels, as well as the characteristi cosf shattered rocks accompanying the fault. From the ample evidence mentioned above, the Nojima fault is considered to be different in faulting history between the parts north and south of Hikinoura Village in Hokudan Town. Right-lateral faulting and east-side uplifting have continued until now in the northern part. In contrast, in the southern part of the fault, the bifurcated fault corresponding to the geologic boundary between the granitic rocks and the Osaka group has acted as an active fault, although its activity is weak at present. Along the Nojima earthquake fault, a wide flexure zone had been formed along the Mizukoshi flexure, but it changed into an active fault with a predominantly right-latera lcomponent probably during the Late Quaternary.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 57-72
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Surface fault ruptures appeared at the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu(Kobe) Earthquake at Ogura, Hokudan Town, northern Awaji Island, Hyogo Prefecture. A portion of the ruptures is preserved in the Nojima Fault Preservation Pavilion, which extends about 140 meters along the fault. At the southern end of the preserved earthquake fault, a trench was excavated to display the subsurface features of the fault. In this paper, we describe the detailed geology and structures on the trench walls and bottom, and present the results of pollen analysis of the sediments for age determination. The strata at the trench site are composed mainly of alternating beds of clay and sand. They are correlated to the Lowest to Lower Osaka Group deposited during 2 to 1.5 Ma, based on a pollen assemblage at the trench site and reported age of a volcanic ash layer north of the site .These beds are overlain by slope deposits and artifici aflill. In the trench, the earthquake fault steeply dips eastward, and is accompanied by a shear zone less than 1 meter wide within the Osaka Group. No geologic evidence for the right-lateral displacement along the fault is observable in the trench except for a remarkable difference in the thickness of the artifici aflil lon both sides of the fault .This differenc ecan be explained by the right-lateral displacement observed on the ground surface. Two secondary high-angle reverse faults dipping west appear in the hanging wall side of the main fault. A small secondary thrust exists in the foot wall side, in association with reverse faulting of the earthquake fault. Many sand dikes parallel to the earthquake fault can be seen on the trench bottom, indicating the paleo-liquefaction.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 73-78
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 79-86
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A total of eleven molluscan species, including of 2 gastropods, 1 scaphopod and 8 bivalves, are obtained from the Upper Pleistocene deposits(Mal2) bored at Rokko Island, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture. Of these, only Turritella (Kurosioia) kurosio Ida is an extinct species known from the Middle to Upper Pleistocene deposits in Southwest Japan. They are named the Turritella (Kurosioia) kurosio Assemblage on the basis of the dominant species. The mode of occurrences and co-occurring relationship of the living species suggest that this assemblage is the para-autochthonous. Taking into accounts of the ecological data of living species, the depositional environment of the Upper Pleistocene deposits bored at Rokko Island is estimated to be a warm, sublittoraK 5-20m in depth), embaymental environment.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 87-96
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This report discusses the results of our survey in 1995-1997 about the distribution of the firefli eLsuciola cruciata ,L. laterali sand Hotaria parvula, and their habitats in Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture, central Japan. L. cruciata ,the most popular firefl yin Japan, was observed at 48 sites. They appeared from late-May to late-June in the lowlands of this area. L. lateralis and H. parvula were observed at 12 and 10 sites, respectively. H. parvula, known to inhabit deciduous broad-leaved or bamboo forests, was found only in the northern part of the city. This species appered from mid-June to early-July.
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 97-114
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
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  • 1998 Volume 9 Pages 115-126
    Published: 1998
    Released: September 28, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
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