We studied the relationship between Christmas decorations in private gardens and the
residential environment by surveying residents in Kobe-Sanda International Garden City, Hyogo
Prefecture. We found that Christmas decorations greatly contribute to improving the quality of
the residential environment. Residents who have a more positive attitude towards Christmas
decorations tend to have a stronger interest in the streetscape. We also believe that Christmas
decorations in private gardens will become more widespread in the future with the increasing
westernizatio nof homes and gardens in new residentia lareas and with the realizatio nof housing
plans aimed at households with children.
The Paleogene Kobe Group in the Sanda Basin, southern Hyogo Prefecture, is composed
mainly of non-marine clastic rocks, such as conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone and tuff. We
made a stratigraphic survey of the group in the southwestern part of Tojo-cho, Kato-gun,
Hyogo Prefecture, based on detailed tracing of tuffs.
Four tuff layers were discerned within the Yokawa Formation of the group' the Ansei-ike,
Yabu, Shinjo and Shikahori-ike Tuffs, in ascending order. As a result of our precise tracing of
these tuff layers, we clarified that the Yokawa Formation in the study area inclines gently
southward, although previous researchers have proposed a westward-inclining structure.
investigated at Mt. Saikoji-yama, Hyogo, Japan, the northern distributional limit. In order to
clarif ythe populational characteristic sat Mt.Saikoji-yama, we compared it with a population at
Aya, Miyazaki, southern Kyushu, the distributiona lcenter. Then a geographic distributio nmap
of this species was made upon examination of many specimens and compilation of various
This species appeared in a lucidophyllous forest on a mountain ridge. Population density (138
individual trees, 0.0092/m2) was low at Mt. Saikoji-yama. As well, the size there was very
samll. However, DBH size (7.5cm), tree height (5.5m) and age (65 years old) were greater
than the population at Aya (0.171/m2, 4.5cm, 4.4m, 52 yr.
population had fewer saplings than the Miyazaki population.
S. myrtacea grows very slowly compared to S. prunifolia, although this species is highly
tolerant to shade and lives in the lucidophyllous forest.
This species is distributed from Kyushu to Shikoku, Chugoku and Kinki districts, and
southwestern Japan, except for around the Seto Inland Sea. We bilieve that the refugia of this
species in the last glacia lstage existed not only in the Kyushu district ,but also in Shikoku or
the southern part of the Kinki district
Spatial distribution and tree height of landscaping tree species that escaped from man-made
landscape were investigated in 31 fragmented secondary forests in Flower Town of Sanda City,
Hyogo Prefecture. A total of 22 species and 2,385 individuals were distributed in the forests,
and most of them were ornichorous tree species. Almost all the landscaping tree speceis were
seedlings or saplings. Ornithochorous tree species, Rhaphiolepis umbellata and Lignstrum lucidum,
were mainly distributed within 100m from the nearest mother tree planted around the forests,
while barochorous tree species, Castanopsis cusp id a ta var. sieboldii and Quercus my rsinaefolia,
were mainly distributed within 30m. These distributional patterns seem to reflect their seed
dispersal patterns. We discuss the planting methods of ornichorous tree species for conserving
The Rokko Mts. and Awaji Island have been formed under an east-west compressive
stress field accompanied by the right-lateral and vertical components of faulting along the
Rokko-Awaji fault system. At the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, the Nojima earthquake
fault appeared almost along the pre-existing Nojima fault within this fault system, which was
previously known to be active. Many precise surveys have been performed after this earthquake
to describe the various features of the earthquake fault, such as the detailed locality and
behaviour of faulting, amount of displacement, and other geomorphic and geologic characteristics.
In addition, the following subjects are discussed based on these features: the segmentation of
the faulting, its total length, mode and amount of displacement at both ends, and the
relationship between the Nojima fault and the other faults on the east side of the island.
From the measurement of three dimensional crustal deformation around the earthquake
fault using air-photographs, it was revealed that the island in the northwestern side of the fault
moved eastward up to 1.7m and dislocated vertically from ―1.2m to + 1.7m, whereas the
southeastern side was displaced southward up to 2.5m and uplifted up to 1.7m. These acute
crustal movements are not parallel to the fault trace. The three dimensional crustal deformations
were at least in the order of lm, even in sites more than 1 km apart from the fault trace.
Many kinds of surveys also revealed the characteristics of the Nojima fault including the
fault topography, recurrence time of faulting, total displacements, and the subsurface geology.
Especially, seismic reflection surveys and three deep-core drillings across the fault clarified the
subsurface structure around the fault, and the characteristics and inclination of its shattered
zones. The Nojima fault accompanied with a present fault scarp higher than 250m had started
remarkable vertical displacement after the deposition of the Osaka Group. It has repeatedly
moved at a recurrence interval of ca. 2,000 years during the Late Quaternary. Total right-lateral
displacement attains at least 300m, being almost equal to or less than its total vertical dislocation.
The studies on the fault planes and shattered zones revealed dips of the planes, mode of
faulting, and the relationship between the amount of displacement and the width and structure
of the shattered zones. Furthermore, detailed observation and analysis of the drilling cores now
in progress indicate the structure and dip of the fault at relatively deeper levels, as well as the characteristi cosf shattered rocks accompanying the fault.
From the ample evidence mentioned above, the Nojima fault is considered to be different
in faulting history between the parts north and south of Hikinoura Village in Hokudan Town.
Right-lateral faulting and east-side uplifting have continued until now in the northern part. In
contrast, in the southern part of the fault, the bifurcated fault corresponding to the geologic
boundary between the granitic rocks and the Osaka group has acted as an active fault, although
its activity is weak at present. Along the Nojima earthquake fault, a wide flexure zone had
been formed along the Mizukoshi flexure, but it changed into an active fault with a predominantly
right-latera lcomponent probably during the Late Quaternary.
Surface fault ruptures appeared at the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu(Kobe) Earthquake at Ogura,
Hokudan Town, northern Awaji Island, Hyogo Prefecture. A portion of the ruptures is
preserved in the Nojima Fault Preservation Pavilion, which extends about 140 meters along the
fault. At the southern end of the preserved earthquake fault, a trench was excavated to display
the subsurface features of the fault. In this paper, we describe the detailed geology and
structures on the trench walls and bottom, and present the results of pollen analysis of the
sediments for age determination. The strata at the trench site are composed mainly of alternating
beds of clay and sand. They are correlated to the Lowest to Lower Osaka Group deposited
during 2 to 1.5 Ma, based on a pollen assemblage at the trench site and reported age of a
volcanic ash layer north of the site .These beds are overlain by slope deposits and artifici aflill.
In the trench, the earthquake fault steeply dips eastward, and is accompanied by a shear zone
less than 1 meter wide within the Osaka Group. No geologic evidence for the right-lateral
displacement along the fault is observable in the trench except for a remarkable difference in the
thickness of the artifici aflil lon both sides of the fault .This differenc ecan be explained by the
right-lateral displacement observed on the ground surface. Two secondary high-angle reverse
faults dipping west appear in the hanging wall side of the main fault. A small secondary thrust
exists in the foot wall side, in association with reverse faulting of the earthquake fault. Many
sand dikes parallel to the earthquake fault can be seen on the trench bottom, indicating the
A total of eleven molluscan species, including of 2 gastropods, 1 scaphopod and 8 bivalves,
are obtained from the Upper Pleistocene deposits(Mal2) bored at Rokko Island, Kobe City,
Hyogo Prefecture. Of these, only Turritella (Kurosioia) kurosio Ida is an extinct species known
from the Middle to Upper Pleistocene deposits in Southwest Japan. They are named the
Turritella (Kurosioia) kurosio Assemblage on the basis of the dominant species. The mode of
occurrences and co-occurring relationship of the living species suggest that this assemblage is
Taking into accounts of the ecological data of living species, the depositional environment of
the Upper Pleistocene deposits bored at Rokko Island is estimated to be a warm, sublittoraK 5-20m
in depth), embaymental environment.
This report discusses the results of our survey in 1995-1997 about the distribution of the
firefli eLsuciola cruciata ,L. laterali sand Hotaria parvula, and their habitats in Sanda City,
Hyogo Prefecture, central Japan. L. cruciata ,the most popular firefl yin Japan, was observed
at 48 sites. They appeared from late-May to late-June in the lowlands of this area. L. lateralis
and H. parvula were observed at 12 and 10 sites, respectively. H. parvula, known to inhabit
deciduous broad-leaved or bamboo forests, was found only in the northern part of the city.
This species appered from mid-June to early-July.