Interferon-tau (IFN-τ:195 aa) is a unique protein secreted only from ruminant and plays a very important role of pregnancy recognition. However, the source of IFN-τ is recombinant IFN-τ using E.coli expression system and it is very difficult to obtain. Therefore basic research and application research for improving pregnancy is highly limited. Besides, use of recombinant IFN-τ for field application is strictly regulated by biosafety and public consensus. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the active site of IFN-τ by using of synthetic peptides as a substitute for recombinant IFN-τ. Eleven peptides (long chain: 27-28 aa, short chain: 7-17 aa) were chemically synthesized from amino acid sequence of IFN-τ. To confirm the agonistic activity of the synthetic peptides, single or mixed peptides were added to cultured bovine endometrium stromal cells to detect gene expression of interferonstimulated genes (ISGs). Recombinant IFN-τ was also added as a positive control. Next experiment was performed to confirm the antagonistic activity of the synthetic peptides. Single or mixed peptides was added to stromal cells with recombinant IFN-τ followed by detecting of ISGs expression. IFN-τ significantly stimulated ISGs expression, whereas all peptides did not stimulate. Besides, addition of single or mixed peptides with IFN-τ showed no inhibitory effect. Overall results suggest that synthetic peptides would not have sufficient agonistic and antagonistic ability or lost the binding ability to IFN receptor by the possible structural change or no activity site having.
Mixed silage of potato pulp and wheat bran, and individual silage of potato pulp alone were prepared to examine their fermentation qualities (test 1), aerobic stabilities (test 2), and the digestibility and nutritional values of a mixed feed prepared by combining the mixed silage with a basic feed (test 3). Both types of silage were treated with (mixed and individual LPSs) or without (mixed and individual NPSs) a lactic acid bacteria inoculant. In test 2, individual NPS or LPS + wheat bran (W) treatments were performed by combining the in dividual silage with wheat bran. In test 1, the mixed silages showed a V-score of 90 in spite of the lower fermentation quality than that of the individual silages. The individual silages froze in winter, whereas the mixed silage did not. In test 2, the aerobic stability of the mixed silages was higher than that of the individual NPS or LPS + W, and was further increased by the addition of a lactic acid bacteria inoculant. In test 3, the mixed silages was ingested as a substitute for wheat bran and rolled corn, with a low dry matter intake, a crude protein content of 8%, and a TDN content of 55%, resulting in equivalent digestibility and nutritional values.
Seasonal variations in dry matter intake (DMI) and crude protein intake (CPI) from forage and supplementary feeds were examined in Yeso sika deer stocked on Shiretoko Ezoshikafarm, where captured Yeso sika deer are fed for a short period of time. The herbage mass from pasture were determined nine times in total between June and November based on differences before and after harvesting. The DMI and CPI from forage and supplementary feeds (beet pulp and potato pulp) were determined. At the start of the experiment, 140 deer were fed and then shipped, leaving 80 at the end of the experiment. Dry matter (DM) contents in forage were 22.2-29.7%, showing an increasing trend after September. Crude protein (CP) contents remained at 21-22%DM in June and October and peaked at 25.1% DM in August. DMI and CP I from forage varied seasonally and increased in August and October. Total DMI and CPI from forage and supplementary feeds increased after July, meeting the nutrie nt requirements. Of note, in August and October, the sufficiency rate of CP only from forage was over 90% and excessive from supplementary feeds. Therefore, inexpensive supplementary feeds with a low CP content are acceptable substitutes.
To clarify whether bovine cardiac muscle tenderizes during aging of meat in the same manner as skeletal muscle, we investigate the textural changes and the changes of myofibrillar proteins during postmortem aging. The shear force values and storage modulus became the hardest at 6 to 12 hours postmortem, after which bovine cardiac muscle tended to be tendered at 1 day postmortem. At 6 hours postmortem, sarcomere lengths of bovine cardiac muscle were shortened to 1.69 μm, and then recovered to 1.89 μm at 24 hours postmortem. From the results of rheological and structural data, we consider that bovine cardiac muscle reaches completion of rigor mortis at 6-12 hours postmortem and then resolves the rigor shortening at 24 hours postmortem. The degree of myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) in the bovine cardiac muscle increased to 0.3 at 2 days postmortem; this degree was lower compared with that in skeletal muscle. SDS-PAGE analysis and western blotting analysis showed that troponin-T, which is a marker of meat tenderization, was not degraded among the myofibrillar proteins during postmortem storage. We conclude that postmortem change in bovine cardiac muscle was induced, but such change was different from that in skeletal muscle.
In this study, the fermented beverage of plant extract by-product (FPEB) was fed to barrows during fattening stage, and effects on their growth rate, meat production, meat quality, and fatty acid composition in muscle and fat tissue were analyzed. Moreover, the relationship between malodorous substances (indole, skatole) in fat tissue of pigs and their gut microbiota composition was investigated. Feeding with FPEB did not influence the growth rate of fattening pigs, and one of the meat taste components. However, linoleic acid concentrations were significantly decreased (subcutaneous fat: P <0.01, intermuscular fat: P <0.01, intramuscular fat: P <0.05) in all tissues of pigs fed FPEB. In addition, indole and skatole concentrations were decreased in subcutaneous fat of FPEB fed pigs (indole:P <0.05,skatole:P <0.01). Feeding with FPEB tended to change gut microbiota composition, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a decrease in Firmicutes observed. As a recycled product, FPEB may be suitable as eco-feed for pig production. FPEB may also have further utility for meat quality improvement.
Changes of behavior and stress index in pregnant, Middle Yorkshire sows were examined in the days following transfer from individual feeding pens to farrowing pens with guardrails. Two groups of sows in late pregnancy were used for measurements: group 1 (n=3) were moved from indoor to outdoor pens; for group 2 (n=4), both types of pens were indoors. Behavioral observations were made for 5 days in the individual feeding pens and for 10 days in the farrowing pens. Saliva was collected for 10 days from sows in each type of pen. Samples of the pig’s coat grown during 10 days in each type of pen were collected for measurement of cortisol concentrations. In the first day after transfer to farrowing pens, the time allocated to lying was the highest and that allocated to standing was the lowest among the 10 days. The time budget between lying and standing in the first day after transfer to farrowing pens differed significantly from the budgets in the days in individual feeding pens, and from those on the 3th, 6th, 8th, 9th and 10th days (only standing on day 10) after transfer to farrowing pens (P<0.05). The concentration of cortisol in saliva on the first day after transfer to farrowing pens was higher than the value on the 2nd day in farrowing pens and higher than that in individual feeding pens. The concentration of cortisol in the coat of sows fed in farrowing pens for 10 days was significantly higher than that of sows fed in individual feeding pens for 10 days (P<0.05).