The current paper is to verify the performances of European and native people who interchange civilities on the deck of whaling ships and exploratory research ships. Also the study is to identify their induction to the racial ingenuity and their admission into their indigenous traditions. The information, mainly obtained from voyage logs, expeditionary reports and missionary diaries is collated with modem research findings.
Indigenous people of Kamchatka were placed under the Russian
Empire system after the arrival of Atrasov’s army in 1697. The second strong influence was the establishment of the Soviet Union and its socialism economy. As the main industrial section of collectivization, reindeer-herding was introduced to indigenous society of Siberia including Kamchatka in 1930s. As another productive section, fishery was also introduced. Indigenous people were forced to move from their home settlements to new large settlements.
Collectivization and reorganization of settlements can be taken as “modernization” of life and most of the people affirmatively received this collectivization, because this policy offered education, residents, food, new jobs and so on to these people. However, reorganization of settlements followed by collectivization also had negative influences. Reorganization had harmful influence on traditional custom and social system of indigenous society. In this paper I would like to examine the influence of collectivization and reorganization of settlements depicted from interviews to indigenous people mainly in Karaginsky region, Tigil’ region and Bystol region.
This is a continuation of the report, published in Bulletin of the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples No.14 (2005). For the details of our expedition, objects, genres, etc. refer to the previous issue.
In 2001 Meiji University deposited its Alaskan ethnological and archaeological materials in Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples. The ethnological materials consist of 113 pieces, and the archaeological ones 523 pieces. These were collected by the staff of Meiji University in the course of the Alaskan investigation in 1960.
In this paper, I describe artifacts ethnological group collected at Point Hope in North Alaska. Artifacts were arrow heads, scrapers, knives, bird spears, harpoon heads, ornaments, wooden tools and so on. Most of the materials do not have information of their origin because of not to be excavated but to be collected.
But we will consider the relations between Eskimo culture and environment in the arctic and sub-arctic area, the socio-cultural structure, and the process of culture change by these artifacts.