The bladder feast is one of the most important rituals of the Eskimo society around the Bering Strait. This feast is the ritual of “ the spirit forwarding ” which sends the spirit of the marine mammal to heaven hoping the second coming of the marine mammal. At the same time this ritual contain the program of the device to maintain morality where is indispensable for survival in such a hard environment in arctic sharing between other people not a hunter monopolizing the game.
The goose and the bear form, at first sight, a strange couple. For a zoologist, they don’t belong to the same family. But with regard to the mythical thought, they are kindred. If we compare various stories inherited from popular traditions from Siberia to Europe, we can recognize an interesting pattern showing that the mother (the sister or the wife) of the bear is a migratory bird like the goose.
According to popular songs of the Mansi people in territories of Russia along the Ob River, the bear nicknamed “Beast of broad” is practically a son of the grebe. In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo, associated with the swan, possesses a bearish nature through his twin sister Artemis, whose name contains the bear element; what is more interesting, one variant text says that his aunt Asteria was a quail. Concerning the legendary Greek king Odysseus (Ulysses), it isn’t just an accident that the name of his wife Penelope means “ marine duck ”, for this Greek hero is certainly a bear’s son, as R. Carpenter has demonstrated.
In the Celtic World, the name King Arthur signifies the bear, and the name of his mother Ygraine is based on an old Irish word “gigren” (Goose). In northern Europe,
Völundr’s poem relates the story of the artisan Völundr who lives a life such as a bear, and his wife is one of the three valkyries (swan-maiden). In Finnish mythology, Kalevala explains how the bear was borne by a virgin which lives in the air and looks like a bird.
Why has mythical thought positioned the bear and the migratory bird in the same genealogy all over the world? The key to solving this enigma resides in the hibernation of the bear and in the migration of several kinds of birds like the goose. In fact, in ancient civilizations, people considered the bear and the goose not only as rulers of time and seasons but also as mediums capable of linking the earth to the other world.
There are discourses among researchers in Eurpe and Britain to state that the current environmental issues stem from humans getting divorced from nature physically and spiritually, and that the industrious nations should learn from the human-nature relationships in so-called traditional societies. Nonetheless there is a strong movement among the indigenous populations on earth to seek to build a bond between their young generations and nature. This paper explores an educational programme in Kodiak, Alaska, the US, which aimed to make a connection between the participants and nature, to find out the background and reasons of their attempt, and discusses issues around identity building among Alutiiq in modem context.
The Kamchatka Peninsula in Far-Eastern Russia was an area where foreign tourists were not allowed to enter without any restriction during the days of the former Soviet Union. Its opening up to the world was in 1992. For foreigners Kamchatka is a very fascinating land blessed with rich natural resources such as natural reserves, nature parks including the UNESCO world heritage-listed area, Kamchatka bear, natural salmons and also the exotic land of indigenous culture of the Koryak, Itel’men, Even and so on.
At the beginning most tourists would like to try mountaineering, trekking, fishing and hunting, however as regards to experiencing indigenous culture, only folk dancing-shows by indigenous dance ensembles are provided to tourists.
Recently, the trend of tourist’s taste to “ experience ” indigenous culture is definitely increasing. To meet such needs small groups of indigenous people have begun to build such “ indigenous settlements ” where tourists can experience their culture. In this paper the author would like to discuss the problems of ethno-tourism in Kamchatka by focusing upon the relations between indigenous culture and foreign tourists from recent investigation.
Between 1905 and 1945 the area south of 50 degrees latitude on Sakhalin Island was Japanese territory. Japanese authorities gathered the Uilta and Nivkh people to the place namede “ Otasu” (suburbs of Shisuka, now Poronajsk) which became famous as a sightseeing spot.
Ms. Aiko Kitagawa (died in 2007) was Uilta, born in Nokoro (now Vladimirovo) in Sakhalin Island, and grew up at Otasu. She left Sakhalin Island to come to Abashiri in 1968. She donated a glass necklace that was used at a bear ceremony in Otasu to the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples. Her relatives prayed that their children grew up energetically by the necklace at a bear ceremony, however a personal wish did not ask at the ceremony usually.
Many archaeological researchers wrote papers on pit dwellings, habitation, room arrangement, populations of a dwelling and so on of the Okhotsk Culture. However, I am interested in the roof construction of pit dwellings, which there are few papers. Therefore, I attempted to gather data on postholes in order to understand what kind of roof construction about pit dwelling of Okhotsk Culture there are. As a result, I was able to divide roof constructions into three types by the presence of the ridgepole, namely I think that two roof types on the pit dwelling of Okhotsk Culture are hip roof and gable roof.
This is a report about the Canadian Inuit prints of Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples collection. The museum stores 87 prints. Most of them were collected in 1990’s. All prints and the artists are noticed in this paper.
This is a report about a Tsaatans’ shaman costume (inventory number H16.108) collected by Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples in 2004. This set of costume is composed of 6 items: headgear, jacket, boots, drum, drumstick and Jew’s harp.
In this short report the external forms, accessories, sizes and materials of them are described and meanings of them are briefly discussed.