Dr. Masao OKA has dedicated his life to cultural studies and research, and has made numerous accomplishments throughout his life. In this article I have focused on his research relating to the Arctic Cultures. Inspired by “Caribou Eskimo ” written by BIRKET SMITH, Dr. OKA became interested in lives of the inland Eskimo in 1920’s. Since then, he has made a lasting relationship with the Arctic culture researchers who are members of IASSA. In 1937 he excavated at the northern most territory of Japan at the time. His excavation has stretched from the Kuril Islands, to Shumushu Island, to Taraika of Sakhalin in search of the Arctic cultural influence to our Japanese Culture. After World War II, Dr. OKA started a project for Hokkaido Ainu research. In 1960, he participated in academic Alaskan research by the Meiji University Alaskan Expedition Team, which was organized as a commemorative event of the school’s 80th anniversary. While in Alaska he focused his studies on the Nunamiut (inland Eskimo) who was still residing within the Brooks Range. Dr. OKA has repeatedly stayed at Anaktuvuk Pass village, and kept a detailed record of their Acculturation. He took such a deep interest in the Arctic Studies that studying the cultural influence from Alaska and North Asia to Japan has become one of a significant life-works for Dr. OKA.
This paper is the second of a three part series. Part one in Bulletin of the
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples 18 looks at an educational program in Kodiak, Alaska, the US to explore meanings of a connection between the participants and nature as well as an issue of identity. Part two follows the theme of part one and examines significance of a bonding with the land through a school curriculum in Russian Mission Alaska, which was conducted within a framework of place-based education. Evidence shows that by school integrating cultural values into the curriculum, students became more engaged with school work and gained confidence, and a gap of distrust between the school and community was narrowed. The initial fieldwork in 2002 was followed up five years later.
In Koryak, the suffix -Nvo, a grammaticalized form of the independent verb Nvo “start, begin”, not only indicates the inceptive aspect maintaining the original meaning of the verb, but also indicates the habitual or continuous aspect. The present paper will aim to explain how these two aspects are complementarily distributed in the verbal inflectional system and why -Nvo can indicate both inceptive and habitual aspects.
Indigenous people of Kamchatka might have had connection with the outside world through the commodity economic system, mainly of fur trade, under the control of Russian Empire since the invasion of Cossack troops. The Russian Empire expanded their fur trade aggressively and in the first half of the 18th century they obtained a vast fur production area including the north-Pacific coastal area with the arrival to Alaska by the Bering Expedition which sailed out from Kamchatka. Then the Empire enlarged the fur trade system to the greatest possible extent through the national policy concern Russia-America Company.
However with the decrease of marine mammal resources such as fur seal and sea otters due to over hunting, Russia sold Alaska to the U. S. A. in 1867 and withdrew from North America. Although, still later, Kamchatka remained the major producer of fur animals such as sable, red fox and marine mammals, in the end of the 19th century salmons that are very important food for indigenous people received a lot of attention as world trade goods, and since the early 20th century, the marine product industry became a key part of the Kamchatka industry. Also in this period, the Soviet Union was established and in 1930s, the socialist economic system was introduced to the indigenous society of Kamchatka. Then, in the end of the 1980s the Soviet regime collapsed, so indigenous people of Kamchatka have been defenselessly tossed around by the turbulence of the new state framework.
In this paper the author would like to consider the current and future situation of indigenous society of Kamchatka in post-Perestroika based on field study from the political and economic point of view and especially put focus on the weakening of the indigenous political situation.
This Paper presents the angle and infom1ation that should be added when we teach the history about the Ainu People to elementary school children. It is necessary to teach that Ainu People were invaded and discriminated by Japanese settlers since the Meiji pioneering phase. However the author has felt apprehensive that both non-Ainu and Ainu children will not have good images of their ancestors if they are taught only about invasion and discrimination. This paper introduces the narratives that Ainu People helped the settlers from Honshu (Japanese mainland) by sharing knowledge of usage plants, catching animal and fish etc. The author is hoping for the children to understand the Ainu culture which has adapted Hokkaido environment.
According to the literature Tsaatan’s reindeer herding vanes seasonally. However, there are few articles referring in detail to seasonal change of control techniques and reindeer behavior in grazing. In this report, the author presents data for reindeer herding in Tsaatan’s summer pasture in northwestern part of Mongolia. Beside the summer campsite each reindeer is tied on a stake in the night. Does are milked 2-3 times in a day; at about 0500-0600 hours, 1400-1600 hours and 1900-2100 hours. Almost all reindeer except fawns are put out to pasture two by two. While reindeer are grazing, herders do not accompany to them. In case the herd is going to mingle with the other herd, herders will change the direction of their herd's movement. Although each reindeer can behave freely in the pasture, they tend to aggregate in close formation, move and graze restlessly, and after a while return voluntarily to the campsite. A principal cause of these behavioral characteristics seems to be insect harassment. In the pasture, there are abundant food, while there also are many harmful insects, such as mosquitoes, blackflies, horseflies and so on. On the other hand, there are limited food and insects in the riverine zone. In order to avoid insect harassment, reindeer seem to aggregate on the “dilution effect ”, move and graze restlessly in the pasture, and return to reverine zone for rest. In addition to this, people occasionally feed salt to their reindeer at campsite. By this practice reindeer may be conditioned to return the campsite.
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples stores many items of the objects from the southern group of the Uilta. This work is aimed to provide the Uilta vocabulary and the cultural information about these items. In this work, we gave an interview to one of the speakers of the Uilta northern dialect, in which we showed some photos of the above-mentioned items and asked how to call them in her own dialect. Then, we compared her answers to the lexical descriptions in literature. In this paper, the results of the interview and the related lexical descriptions are reported in the form of a list for reference. Throughout this work, it is expected to observe not only the dialectal differences between north and south, but also some ethnographical idea of the Uilta.