This paper focuses on an Inuit elders’ “ land-skills training course ” to explore its meanings regarding the concept of connection with the land, with particular reference to transmitting knowledge. The study revealed a dilemma in contemporary
Inuit society concerning what they should know and how they should be, at a time when traditional modes of knowledge transmission among extended family members were not functioning well. The course rationale was to guide young people to “be and become and Inuk”, the core of this being establishing a connection to the land.
The formal school system was perceived as not delivering what community members considered to be important. A proper relationship with the land is directly linked to sustainability, and the land-skills course was the Inuit's response to questions about a sustainable future.
Before the Soviet System, part of the inhabitants of three settlements in the northern area of Karaga District of Kamchatka, Pustoretsk, Rekinniki, Podkagernoye conducted small-scale reindeer-herding along with fishing and sea-mammal hunting. This compound subsistence including reindeer-herding in addition to hunting-gathering is similar to that of the Olutor of the Bering Sea coast. Moreover, it is very interesting that both these Koryak groups exceptionally had masks which were thought to be very rare throughout the Kamchatka.
With the progress of the Soviet System, many kolkhozy were established in the area of the Olutor and also in the settlements of north-eastern Karaga District where small-scale reindeer-herding were conducted. Later in the early 1960s, reorganization of collective farms of reindeer-herding was proposed due to deteriorating management at kolkhozy. Therefore, many new reindeer-herding sovkhozy were established in various regions of northern Kamchatka by combining a number of kolkhozy to form one sovkhoz. However, many viJlages were closed and inhabitants of these villages were forced to remove to new villages.
This paper focuses on the aftermath of the Soviet System on the indigenous people of Kamchatka through the consideration of indigenous history in the northern area of Karaga District associated with establishment of kolkhozy and sovkhozy.
Even's reindeer herding methods and techniques are investigated in Tompo region in Sakha Republic, Russia. Daily herding is conducted as follows: in the morning reindeer are collected together at camp-site by a herdsperson. In the day time the reindeer are kept at the camp-site and in the surrounding area. Whenever they are going to leave the area, a herdsperson will put them back. In the night reindeer are tolerated to roam freely.
While this form of herding seems to be simple and easy, they have some characteristic techniques to manipulate reindeer smoothly. Near the camp-site salt is put on a kind of stand, so that reindeer can always ingest it. And at times people give reindeer salt directly by hand. The salt lures reindeer and help to keep them near the camp-site. This kind of technique seems to modify behavioral patterns of reindeer.
There are different kinds of technique which seem to make herding effectively. Use of bells is one of them. About 5-10% of individuals of the herd are worn collars with bell. People at the camp pay always attention to tinkle of the bells, and by the sound they can track location and movement of the herd. Use of herding dogs seems to be another technique. Sometimes a dog is used to drive and collect reindeer, and it seems to help herdsperson's work to some extent.
By this study I have indicated some techniques of the Even to herd reindeer. However the observed herd in this study is small and has unusual composition. In the future I would like to study these and other herding techniques in detail, and intend to understand Even's reindeer herding methods more systematically.
The sable is an important animal for fur trade in the world since the ancient time in Eurasia. Therefore, it is important to review the names for the sables in various languages in Eurasia to investigate the transmission of words for the sables. In the present paper, to give basic information for the transmission and transformation of the words for the sable in Eurasia, words for the sable and 3 other species of marten (Martes sp.), weasels, and squirrels in Eurasian languages were investigated.
In East Asia, the sable is called in various words. The sable was called “furuki ” (or fuluki) in ancient Japan (ca. 8 to 13 c.). It is called “hoinu ” -like words in Ainu language, “dambi ” with modifiers or other words in Korean, “bulgan ”-like words in Mongolic languages, and “segep ”-like words in Tungusic languages, and “diao ” with modifiers in Chinese. In the regions of central-western Eurasia where the sable is (was) distributed, the sable is called in words of “bulgan ”-like words in Mongolic languages, those of “kish ”-like words in Turkic languages, “nukse ”-like words in Finno-Ugric languages, and “sobol ” in Russian. In Iranian languages, the sable is fundamentally called in “samur ”. The word “samur ” is spread in central-western Asia and southeastern Europe. In northern-western Europe, the sable is called in “sobol ”-like words.
In Eurasian languages, martens are sometimes called in the words related with squirrels. Especially, it is not worthy that squirrels are called “uluki ” -like words in Tungusic languages.
The author Tatiana SEM, researcher of the Russian Museum of Ethnography in St. -Petersburg, describes in detail the bear ceremonial of the Nivkh and Orok (Uilta) in Sakhalin. The article is based on the collections of the Russian Museum of Ethnography and literature as well.
The author, the chief of Siberia department in the Russian Museum of Ethnography in St. -Petersburg, dedicated her long term survey of the Koryak in Kamchatka Peninsula to this publication. Referring mainly to the most fundamental work by W. JOCHELSON (1908) and those by Soviet researchers as well, she gives detailed descriptions and analysis of the ceremonials and festivals of the Koryak. Her field survey was carried out among the Reindeer-Koryak, Maritime-Koryak of different regions of Koryak Avtonomnyi Okrug in 1976, 1979 and 2002. With her own observation and data from the informants the author successfully fulfilled and gave another interpretation to some problems that were not discussed enough by JOCHELSON and others. The book has five chapters: 1) Historiography of the Koryak ceremonial rites, 2) Festivals of Production (festivals common to the settled- and nomadic Koryak; festivals of the settled Koryak; festivals of the nomadic Koryak), 3) Ceremonials of family life (Marriage, Child-birth, Notions on illness and its treatment, Funeral and mourning), 4) A retrospective analysis of the Koryak ceremonials and festivals, 5) Contemporary situation of the ceremonials of family life.
Through the description of the ceremonials and festivals of different groups of the Koryak the author was eager to lighten and trace the habits and/or rituals of “hunters” of the northern area. And as the conclusion she gives consent to define the Koryak society as“hunters-reindeer breeders of Tundra” type that is now applied to many reindeer-breeding peoples of the circumpolar region.