This paper describes and discusses the sharing of meat and maktak (skin parts with blubber) in the Inupiat community of Barrow, Alaska, USA. There are two kinds of sharing systems such as (1) rule governed sharing and (2) voluntary sharing, both of which enable the distribution of whale meat and maktak to the whole community. The sharing systems have multiple functions and effects in the community. Also, while the systems are an efficient means of distribution of culturally valued food to the whole community, the sharing of the whale meat and maktak itself, as well as whale hunting, seem to be the Inupiat's aims. In conclusion, I argue that the sharing practices contribute to the well-being of the Inupiat community of Barrow, Alaska.
Across circumpolar region many wild reindeer populations are declining coincidently, and global warming is considered one of primary causes of this phenomenon. Various environmental factors induce by global warming may affect reindeer population dynamics. In this paper major factors regulating reindeer population are reviewed, and their influences to reindeer herding are examined.
Climatic change influences local reindeer populations directly through absolute/relative forage availability, and indirectly through acceleration of human activities. Absolute forage availability includes biomass and quality of reindeers’ diet. Climatic variables influence vegetation, its nutritive value and phenology, then they affect reindeer physical condition, productivity and calf survival.
Relative forage availability is based on absolute forage availability and accessibility to them, and includes snow depth and hardness, insect harassment. In winter much snow and ice layer disturb reindeer from grazing. Meanwhile in summer reindeer run away for a long time to avoid insect harassment and cannot forage sufficiently. Both of them lead shortage of energy needs and excessive energy cost, and may influence reindeer physical condition.
Due to global warming accessibility of the Arctic regions for human activities are increasing, and many of them may disturb reindeer forage and spoil their habitat. They includes “line corridors” (roads, railways, oil pipe lines and so on), development projects (forestry, mining and so on) and recreational activities.
These limiting factors similarly affect local reindeer herding. However there are some unique characteristics peculiarly in reindeer herding. First, as coat color of domestic reindeer is highly variable, it may accelerate insect harassment. Second, as pastures of domestic reindeer are relatively limited, damage of habitat are severer than wild reindeer. Third, as population traits of domestic reindeer may differ from wild one, sensitivity to environmental change also may be different. Through these factors and their multiple effects, global warming may economically influence reindeer herding.
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples stores many items of the artifacts from the southern group of the Uilta. This work is aimed to provide the Uilta vocabulary and the cultural information about these items.
This is the third number of the reports of our work, in which we gave an interview to one of the speakers of the Uilta northern dialect. In the interview we showed some photos of the above-mentioned items and asked how to call them in her own dialect.
Then, we compared her answers to the lexical descriptions in literature and by another speaker. In this paper, the results of the interview and the related lexical descriptions are reported in the form of a list for reference.
Throughout this work, it is expected to observe not only the dialectal differences between north and south, but also some ethnographical idea of the Uilta.
The Sakhalin island before modernization was an area where languages including Ainu , Nivkh and Uilta were in contact. At present Russian is mainly used.
The Sakhalin island differs from Hokkaido in vegetation. Berries, such as mountain cranberry and black crowberry, can be gathered in large quantities, and have been very important food resource for the Nivkh. In this paper I would like to try a study on the general term of the berries in Nivkh.
The original paper was printed in the “Soviet Ethnography ”, 1960, No.4. pp. 90-104 (Reprinted in “Kunstkamera ”, 1995, Sankt-Petersburg, pp.59-79). The author Evgeniya A.Alckseenko has worked at the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.-Petersburg) and dedicated her whole life to the Ket study. The Kets is a minority people distributed along the middle Enisej River in the West Siberia. The local groups are along its tributaries as Podkamennaja Tunguska, Kureika, Elogui and others. The author examines the Ket bear f es ti val from the viewpoint of “bear cult ”, taking in account the literature concerned and her own materials from the field work as well. Though the original article was published more than a half centu11• ago, still it is of great importance for the study not only of bear festival as a whole, but also of cultural study of mankind in Eurasia.
The original paper was printed in the “Soviet Ethnography &rdquo, 1985 No.5, pp. 92-97. The author E. A. A LEKSEENKO began her Ket study in the latter half of 1950s in West Siberia. In 1971 fortunately she had a chance to be invited to a bear festival held in a Ket village on river Elogui, a tributary of middle Enisej River. She describes whole process of the festival in detail while she observed as a participant of the event, including the information gained thereafter. Many interesting comments are given from the comparative study based on different literature of other Siberian peoples.