Across circumpolar region many wild reindeer populations are declining coincidently, and global warming is considered one of primary causes of this phenomenon. Various environmental factors induce by global warming may affect reindeer population dynamics. In this paper major factors regulating reindeer population are reviewed, and their influences to reindeer herding are examined.
Climatic change influences local reindeer populations directly through absolute/relative forage availability, and indirectly through acceleration of human activities. Absolute forage availability includes biomass and quality of reindeers’ diet. Climatic variables influence vegetation, its nutritive value and phenology, then they affect reindeer physical condition, productivity and calf survival.
Relative forage availability is based on absolute forage availability and accessibility to them, and includes snow depth and hardness, insect harassment. In winter much snow and ice layer disturb reindeer from grazing. Meanwhile in summer reindeer run away for a long time to avoid insect harassment and cannot forage sufficiently. Both of them lead shortage of energy needs and excessive energy cost, and may influence reindeer physical condition.
Due to global warming accessibility of the Arctic regions for human activities are increasing, and many of them may disturb reindeer forage and spoil their habitat. They includes “line corridors” (roads, railways, oil pipe lines and so on), development projects (forestry, mining and so on) and recreational activities.
These limiting factors similarly affect local reindeer herding. However there are some unique characteristics peculiarly in reindeer herding. First, as coat color of domestic reindeer is highly variable, it may accelerate insect harassment. Second, as pastures of domestic reindeer are relatively limited, damage of habitat are severer than wild reindeer. Third, as population traits of domestic reindeer may differ from wild one, sensitivity to environmental change also may be different. Through these factors and their multiple effects, global warming may economically influence reindeer herding.
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples stores many items of the artifacts from the southern group of the Uilta. This work is aimed to provide the Uilta vocabulary and the cultural information about these items.
This is the third number of the reports of our work, in which we gave an interview to one of the speakers of the Uilta northern dialect. In the interview we showed some photos of the above-mentioned items and asked how to call them in her own dialect.
Then, we compared her answers to the lexical descriptions in literature and by another speaker. In this paper, the results of the interview and the related lexical descriptions are reported in the form of a list for reference.
Throughout this work, it is expected to observe not only the dialectal differences between north and south, but also some ethnographical idea of the Uilta.
The Sakhalin island before modernization was an area where languages including Ainu , Nivkh and Uilta were in contact. At present Russian is mainly used.
The Sakhalin island differs from Hokkaido in vegetation. Berries, such as mountain cranberry and black crowberry, can be gathered in large quantities, and have been very important food resource for the Nivkh. In this paper I would like to try a study on the general term of the berries in Nivkh.
本訳稿の原文はЕ.А.Апесеенко 《На медвежьем празднике у кетов》(Совеская Этнография. No5.pp.92-97.1985、初出『ソヴィエト民族学』No.5, pp. 92-97、1985年所収)である。著者は1950年代後半に西シベリアのケートのフィールドワークを始め、各地で資料・情報を収集し、以降一貰してケート研究に携わってきた。1971年にエニセイ川中流の支流エログイ川のケートのクマ祭に参加する幸運に恵まれた。本稿ではその際の体験とその後にケートから得られた情報に基づいてクマ祭の全容が詳細に記述されている。それと同時に関連するシベリア諸民族の諸例との比較に基づく多くの興味深い指摘もある。