Research on reindeer herding on post-soviet era has been focused on public or privatized way of herding. However, little has been researched on more individualized herding. Based on data collected through fieldwork around the lake of Num-to in the taiga area of north-western Siberia in winter of 2011 to 2012, this paper examines the process of socio-economic transformation after the 1990s. The object of the analysis is how the Khanty and the Forest Nenets around Num-to Lake have established their multiple livelihoods outside of public/private section.
Firstly, I look at their placement of homes. Secondly, I show the actual conditions surrounding their multiple livelihoods: reindeer herding, fishing, and hunting. Finally, it is revealed that their individualized herding nowadays is different from either of the two previous models they followed: “nomadism as a way of life ” and “production nomadism. ” I also show that the form of livelihood has been transformed from “production nomadism ” to more individualized herding.
Northwest Coast peoples such as the Nuu-Chah-Nulth and Makah are known to have been whaling peoples historically, hunting gray and humpback whales well before contact with Europeans. While the Nuu-Chah-Nulth have not practiced whaling for over a century, the Makah resumed whaling in 1999 after a 70 year hiatus. This short paper considers the possibility of Nuu-Chah-Nulth's resumption of whaling in terms of indigenous rights and current social situations of aboriginal nations. The Maa-Nulth groups of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth concluded The Maa-Nulth Treaty with Governments of Canada and British Columbia, which was effective as of April, 2011. Nowhere in the treaty is there a mention of whaling rights. They decided not to include whaling in the treaty in order to conclude negotiations as quickly as possible. Although it does not deny possibility of the revival of whaling, the Maa-Nulth people appear to have instead focused their priorities on economic aspects such as commercial fishing, logging, mining rights which will improve their life and economic conditions. Also, the tourism industry including whale watching and canoeing has been successful along the west coast of Vancouver Island for the past few decades. Considering the current situation, this author finds that Nuu-Chah-Nulth's resumption of the whale hunt will be very difficult for at least the next few decades.
Shoji Kimura (1905-1991) was a Japanese painter. He was born in Hakodate, Hokkaido and emigrated to Karafuto (present south aria of Sakhalin island). He spent his boyhood in Sakhalin, went back to Hokkaido and enrolled in the preparatory course of medical school at the Hokkaido University, (Hokkaido Daigaku Yoka Irui) (present Hokkaido University School of Medicine). However, he could not give up his dream of learning the art. He quit the Hokkaido University, enrolled in the Tokyo School of Fine Arts (Tokyo Bijutsu Gakko) (present Tokyo University of Art) . He graduated from the school in 1931 and became a teacher at Hakodate Jissen Girls'High School (Hakodate Jissen Koto Jogakko).
He went to Karafuto after he retired in 1938. That time, many of the indigenous peoples lived in the area called Otasu (present suburb of Poronaisk) in the Japanese territory of Karafuto. He spent a long time with the indigenous peoples and painted pictures of them. His paintings vividly tell us how people lived around that time. This article introduces how Kimura's paintings from the Collection of Abashiri Museum of Art contribute to Karafuto studies.
In this report, a case of small management organization obshchina run by indigenous families and relatives in Sakha Republic, Russian Federation, is focused and its activity and challenges are indicated. Since 20th century, domestic reindeer numbers in USSR/Russia have been fluctuated drastically. After foundation of socialist regime, transformation of reindeer herds into public ownership was started in the early 1930s, and many domestic reindeer were lost in this process. Then despite some unfortunate accidents domestic reindeer number was increasing generally. From 1960s to 1990 domestic reindeer number became at the maximum, then in the 1990s and 2000s after Soviet regime collapsed, it was decreased dramatically. The obshchina system was put in operation in this period, as one of the successors of kolkhoz and sovkhoz. In most cases the system is a small scale management organization based on indigenous families and relatives.
In 1998 P-obshchina was established to manage reindeer herding in eastern district of Sakha republic. It was distributed domestic reindeer from agricultural production cooperative T, which is a successor of former sovkhoz in the district. Since the T cooperative did not wholly admit P-obshchina’s use of pasture, hunting and fishing territory, trouble of land use happened between them and it has lasted for more than 10 years. In that period the P-obshchina continued reindeer herding in the area, however finally it decided to shift its subsistence activities to another area.
Like this, many of regional administrations’ attempts to transform collective farms to obshchinas are in trouble. It is difficult for obshchinas to get agreement for land use from former land occupiers. On the other hand many of obshchinas are established for another aim different from original purpose, such as to obtain land use right. In spite of these problems part of indigenous peoples seem to manage the obshchina system.
The present report on the Uilta language (one of the Tungusic Languages) is based on the materials provided by Mr. Ichiro Yamakawa (1933-2013), a Uilta Southern Dialect speaker from Poronaisk district, Sakhalin (Russia). The interview was conducted by the author in Poronaisk from September 6th to 8th, 2012.
The first half aims to report lexical items representing ethnological materials of the Uilta. On this study the interviewer showed the interviewee some pictures of the materials stored in the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples, and the interviewee answered each name in his mother language.
The second half aims to report some Uilta short sentences translated from Russian ones by the interviewee, although his translation does not exactly correspond with the Russian original sentences. Every sentence is represented in phonemic transcription with the underlying form, grammatical gloss, and Japanese translation.
This paper introduces our trial for restoration of traditional technique to make the Kuril Ainu’s coiling basket Tenki through the hands-on workshop at the museum. A traditional bundle coiling basket Tenki is made of Tenki-gusa (Leymus moll is mollis). Although Tenki had been used by the Kuril Ainu, the Hokkaido and the Sakhalin Ainu had not. Because of forced emigration and cultural assimilation done by the Japanese and Russian government, customs and living environment of the Kuril Ainu were drastically changed in the 20th century). Finally, they have lost not only technique for making Tenki but also most of their traditional customs.
This time, our trial for restoration referred to the Tenki collections which were exhibited at the Hokkaido Historical Museum and some resources of previous attempts of restoration for Tenki. Our hands-on workshops were held at the Asahikawa City Museum in 2011 and at the Ishikari Local Museum in 2012. A goal of both workshops is to make cocktail coaster with a diameter of 10 centimeters. Several technical features were revealed through preparation and processing of Tenki-gusa as well as making Tenki cocktail coaster. The paper describes process of making Tenki and provides observation about how the Kuril Ainu adopted vegetation into their culture.
In 1921, motor-sailer Ohtori-maru, a wooden 164-tonner of the Fisheries Agency, Agriculture and Commerce Department of Japan, was sent to Kamchatka and Bering Sea for a resource investigation. After the voyage a photographic album was compiled of photographs (black and white) taken by researcher and ship crew for the memorial of this 1921-voyage. Although there is no information on the number of albums that were made, it seems that the same albums were distributed to concerned parties including the ship crew. The author has paid notice to one of these albums which belongs to the collection of the Hakodate City Museum. Fortunately one of these albums was donated to our museum this year.
Ohtori-maru ship left the harbor of Tokyo on June 11th with 8 researchers and 24 crew members on board and then returned to the home port on October 12th. During this voyage Ohtori-maru ship called at many places such as Petropavlovsk, Commander Islands and also along the eastern coast of Kamchatka to Chukchi Peninsula, Zhupanova, Ust-Kamchatsk, Uka, Ossora, Korf, Apuka, Olyutor, Glybokaya Bay, Dezinev Bay, Moynypil'gyn, U gol'naya bay, Anadyr, Provideniya, Chaplino, St. Lawrence Bay, Dezhnev and Uelen. The album has 115 photographs taken in many anchorage sites. Ethnic groups of these photos are the Aleut, Kamchadal/Itelmen, Koryak, presumably Kerek, Chukchi and Siberia Eskimo, and includes various scenes such as a fishing camp life, tent dwellings, fishing hut balagan, settlements, dugout canoes, skin-covered boats and a dog sled. I would like to examine closely all aspects of this album taking advantage of the donation of this album in the near future.
In this paper I would consider the significance of this album as ethnographies of
Kamchatka and Chukotska. I think that it would be necessary to conduct a joint international research on this album in the future.