Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples (thereafter, HMNP) has so far collected two copper knives with a Y-shaped handle, which are attributed to Athabascan/ Dene cultures. In this paper, we compare them with similar items housed in other museums and examine the distribution and usage of such knives. The materials we use in our analysis include historical records, drawings and photographs during the period between the end of l8th centu1y and early 20th century. We point out the possibility that the Hare Indian may have used knives with a Y-shaped handle.
We also discuss such knives as prestige goods in addition to their practical advantage as a hunting implement. Researchers of indigenous North American metallurgy have already suggested that both practicality and prestige were attributed to Athabascan copper artifacts in general until the former half of the 20th century. The prior studies tend to focus on copper as trade items when they discuss prestige of such materials. In this paper, we argue that Athabascan copper knives can be considered as practical-yet・prestigious goods not only because copper was considered precious trade items but also because it enabled people to hunt grizzly bears and other potentially dangerous animals. In Athabascan societies, where hunting and fishing are primary modes of subsistence, traditional spear hunting of grizzly bears used to bring a fame to successful hunters, and it was the Y-shaped handle of Athabascan copper knives that ensured the bear hunters safety. In the last chapter, we analyze one of the knives housed in HMNP to shed light on its uniqueness among other Athabascan knives.
Reindeer pastoralism is the major subsistence activity engaged in by various peoples in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. It has been studied from various points of view. However, the techniques used to manage and control livestock have been relatively ignored by scholars.
In this article, daily herding activity and usage or domestic reindeer are reported by a field study done in the Aldan district, which is in the southern part of the Sakha Republic, Russia. The author stayed at a cabin or an Evenki obshchina (clan-community) used for reindeer herding, and observed and interviewed the herders about everyday reindeer herding activity and usage.
The results showed that daily herding is carried out as follows: every morning, a herder searches for the reindeer herd grazing in the pasture and drives them to the cabin site. Then some bucks are caught and others are set free. Different kinds or instruments and apparatus are used for reindeer management and control. Some of these are bells to detect reindeer; a corral, lassos and hampering bars to restrict their movement; and salt, urine, and pellets of feed to attract I hem.
The results also discuss the many uses or the reindeer. Some castrated bucks are used for travel and transportation. The herders utilize reindeer for riding and as beasts of burden. Reindeer are also used as draft animals for sledges. Furthermore, the does are milked in summer and the milk is processed into butter and whipped cream for consumption at home. In this case study, Evenki's reindeer herding activity and usage seemed to be the same as neighboring Even's form. Although this obshchina aims to produce reindeer meat for sale, an increase in the number of reindeer has not occurred because of wolf predation. Consequently, its reindeer herding activities are similar to the traditional taiga type activities, which use bucks for travel and transportation and docs for milking.
Located on the shores of Moller Bay in the centre of the Alaska Peninsula, the Hot Springs Village Site was excavated by an archeological team under the direction of Hiroaki Okada and Atsuko Okada from 1972 to 1984. Their fieldwork resulted in various research findings.
In this report, some 1500 bone artifacts excavated from the Hot Springs Village Site were analyzed. By examining shell layers, the condition of house depressions, and the radiocarbon dates of various deposits, the following four occupational phases were established; Port Moller I (4200 B. P. - 3800 B. P.), Port Moller II -1(3500B. P. -2800B.P.), Port Moller II -2(2800B. P. -2000B. P.), and Port Moller III (1500B. P. -600B. P.)
Excavated bone artifacts were classified as follows; 8 types and 41 subtypes of hunting and fishing tools (such as arrowheads, fishhook barbs, appear and harpoon points), 13 types and 26 subtypes of working tools (such as flaking tools, shovels, drills, awls, and wedges), 12 types and 17 subtypes of connecting tools (such as sockets, hafts, fore shafts, and wedges), 7 types and 8 subtypes of ornaments and ceremonial objects, The intended use of each artifact and their change in form through time was also analyzed.
During Port Moller II -2, the use of large multi-pronged fishing spears and bone arrowheads with a projecting tang on the base was observed. Along with the climate change that brought mudflat in the bay, the bone artifacts during this period suggest the change in subsistence activities, such as introduced shallow sea fishing, salmon fishing, and hunting of caribou as well as other land mammals.
Shoji Kimura (1905-199 l) was a Japanese painter. He produced numerous colorful, engaging paintings.
Born in 1-lakodate, he moved to Sakhalin (karafuto) and spent his childhood there. After returning to Japan, Kimura entered the preparatory course of medical school at the Hokkaido University (Hokkaido Daigaku Yoka Ⅰrui, present Hokkaido University School of Medicine). However, his desire to study art was so strong that he decided to quit the medical school and entered the Tokyo School of Fine Arts (Tokyo Bijyutsu Gakko, present Tokyo University of Art). After graduating from the art school in 1931, he became a teacher Hakodate Jissen Girl's High School (Hakodate Jissen Koto Jogakko).
He resigned from his job in 1938 and went to Sakhalin (Karafuto) where he spent a long time with indigenous peoples; he produced a great number of paintings depicting these indigenous peoples. His paintings vividly convey the indigenous people's lives at the time.
This article attempts to link Kimura’s paintings owned by the Abashiri Museum of Art and research on indigenous peoples in Sakhalin (Karafuto).This article is a continuation from “Indigenous Peoples in Sakhalin (Karafuto) painted by Shoji Kimura (l) ”．
The Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples has excavated the Notoro Cape West Coast Site since 1996. This site has occupations of the Jomon, the Epi-Jomon, the Okhotsk, and the Satsumon cultural periods. This report provides the results of the excavation campaign in October, 2016.
The past site survey identified a total of six localities: Locations a, b, c, d, e, and f.The archaeological remains attributed to the Okhotsk Culture are mainly found from Locations a, and c. In the present season, we excavated approximately 10㎡ in Location a, located on the edge of the precipice.
The excavation uncovered the burned soil and four pit houses of the Okhotsk cultural period. Within the layers containing these archaeological features, we recovered an amber ornament, a stone sinker, a pierced stone ornament and so on these cultural materials show that the Okhotsk Culture was prevalent in this site.
In the following years, we plan to excavate Location b, also located on the edge of a precipice to elucidate human activity in this Okhotsk Cultural site.
Uilta (formerly called Orok), one of the Tungusic languages, is spoken in northeastern part of Sakhalin Island. This language is divided into two dialects: Northern Dialect, which was traditionally spoken in village Val and its surrounding areas, and Southern Dialect, which was spoken in Poronaisk (formerly called Shisuka) and its surrounding areas. At the present time, the Uilta speak usually Russian, and it seems that there remain less than ten people who are able to speak their traditional language.
This is the third part of my report that aims to present short sample sentences in Uilta Northern Dialect provided by two speakers: Ms. Irina Fedjaeva and Ms. Elena Bibikova. The first and second parts, Yamada (2015, 2016), presented sentences (1) to (125), and the present report is devoted to sentences (126) to (200). The author recorded these sentences during 2010 - 2013 on Sakhalin by means of the same Russian questionnaire with that of the previous work, Tsumagari (2010). Ms. Fedjaeva and Ms. Bibikova translated each one of 200 Russian sentences into Uilta. In this report the sentences by Ms. Fedjaeva are marked with (a), and those by Ms. Bibikova with (b). Every sentence is represented in phonemic transcription with the underlying form, English-based grammatical gloss, and Russian original sentences with its Japanese translation.
Xie Sui（謝遂）'s Zhigong Tu（職貢図），“the picture scroll of tribute to Qing （清）empire ” is composed of 301 paintings of the peoples in and around Qing empire. Every painting has its own explanation written in Manchu and Chinese. Particularly Manchu version of the explanations is worth studying ethnologically as well as linguistically.
In this paper, in order to provide information on the peoples of Amurland and Sakhalin, I will translate Manchu explanations about seven peoples of Guandong（関東） area, namely Oronco, Kilen, Kuye, Fiyaka, Kiyakara, Nadan hala, and Heje.
This paper introduces Mr. Takeki Fujito and his wood carvings. He is a world famous artist of wood crafts. He made many great wooden bear's family, wolf, whale, dolphin, people and the other animals. His wood carving is not only real but also fantastic. He spoke many times about the history of wood crafts in Hokkaido.