This Special Issue is devoted to describing histories of northern fishing in the
Anthropocene. Northern indigenous communities face new challenges as well as new
opportunities as global warming progresses. Historical perspectives are necessary if we
hope to understand Arctic and northern people's adaptations to global biocultural change
in the Anthropocene.
In this paper, I describe a history of indigenous salmon fishing technologies and
management issues in the Upper Kuskokwim region, Alaska, U.S.A. As a traditional
food, salmon has been an important part of culture for the Upper Kuskokwim
Athabascan people. Intensive contacts with non-Natives in the early 20th century
brought some changes to Upper Kuskokwim people’s subsistence technologies including
fishwheels, which made it possible to obtain large amount of salmon efficiently in siltladen
main streams of the Upper Kuskokwim tributaries. Conflicts with non-Native
wildlife management regime began after Alaska's statehood when the State banned
salmon fishing technology which involves blocking the entire width of a river or stream.
As a result, Upper Kuskokwim people were forced to abandon their fishing weirs and
fences at Salmon River since the late 1960s. After a decade or so, subsistence salmon
fishing with rods and reels resumed at Salmon River. Nowadays, Salmon River Culture
Camp has been organized by Nikolai Village Council to revitalize their fishing
traditions. Since the 2010s, severe decline of king salmon populations in Alaska and
Yukon has become a serious issue in indigenous societies of the areas. Local people
think that commercial fishing (including bycatch) in high sea negatively affects the king
salmon populations, while some others point out that increased activities by beavers and
low-level of water in interior rivers might have been causing disruption of salmon's
upstream migration. Through my observation of people's activities in salmon spawning
areas, I argue that making a small opening to beaver dams (instead of totally destroying
them) may actually benefit spawning salmon populations.
This paper will consider the history of fishing of Khanty who live in Western
Siberian forest and show their f lexibility that they have been adapted to natural
environmental and social changes. Khanty's fishing has developed in the interactions
between their local communities and outside world. In the Czarist Russia era in
Western Siberia merchants found the economic value of fresh water fish resources and
performed fish trade with Khanty. Then in the Soviet era Sovkhoz managed the fish
production of indigenous peoples, and after the Soviet era municipal or private
agricultural companies conducted indigenous fishing in the same way as Sovkhoz. At a
glance, it looks like that Khanty's fishing form didn't change since Czarist times, except
for the modern fishing tool. However this paper will reveal the continuity and
discontinuity of their fishing form by examining the historical transition process of
fishing and their reactions to fishing regulations, based on literatures and the author's
fieldwork data in Yamal-Nenets autonomous region for about four months in total from
2016 to 2018. Finally it will indicate that Khanty have changed f lexibly their
dependence on fishing activity, in order to deal with environmental and social changes.
In this paper, I summarized the hunting, fishing and gathering activities of the Tuva
people living in the Taiga district in the northern part of Mongolia from 1995 to 2018.
The Tuva people is famous as the reindeer herders. In fact, however, they were
hunters who used reindeer as a means of transport. There are many reports as reindeer
livestock breeders in this area, but only a few are written about hunting activities. It was
an era when the number of reindeer was extremely decreased around 1995 when I started
the investigation. Under these circumstances, they returned to their lifestyle before
socialism and began to rely heavily on hunting activities.
However, now the hunting culture is about to disappear, due to the change in lifestyle
in Taiga district. So, I thought maybe I should write down their activities what I saw and
experienced about hunting activities in Taiga in post socialism era.
This report will be one of the few materials that describes the actual hunting activity
being lost in Taiga.
In June in 1942, Japanese army invaded and occupied Attu and Kiska islands of the
Aleutian Islands. In those days 42 Unangan (Aleut) people and two white man and
woman lived on Attu Island. Some islanders died in the period of the Japanese
occupation. On September in 1942, Japanese Army transferred these islanders (except
one white woman) to Otaru city of Hokkaido prefecture in Japan and detained them
until the end of war. In Otaru, Tuberculosis was going around among islanders so many
people died. After the war, survivors returned to the U.S. However, the U.S. government
didn’t allow them to return to Attu Island. This is the reason why Attu Island is now an
This text is a report on Unangan (Aleut) people of Attu Island which was written
by Karl Kaoru Kasukabe（春日部薫: 1913-1995）during WWII. He followed Japanese
Army as interpreter and attended “Aleutian Islands Campaign.” During his military
service, Kasukabe researched culture and language of Attu people.
The original text was handwritten between 1942 and 1943 and is housed in Hokkaido
University Library (Identification No. 572.9/KAS/別シ). Generally speaking,
ethnographic records about Attu islanders have been very rare. This text includes
detailed ethnographic information about culture, history, and language of Attu people
and partly includes important description about the background of Aleutian Islands
Campaign. Therefore, this text is worth publishing for future study.
-Sangp'yŏng T'ongbo- is a coin used in the Joseon Dynasty which was first minted in 1633.
In this paper, we will introduce two coins of the Sangp'ng T'ongbo which were discovered in
the Sakhalin Island of the Russian Federation and report the result of chemical analysis of them
using XRF. These two coins consist of tin (Sn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe).
But the chemical composition of two coins are not similar.
The present report surveys the digital exhibition of Koryak materials at the Hokkaido
Museum of Northern Peoples added to Facebook in cooperation with Megumi Kurebito,
at University of Toyama in 2018.
Since 2005, Kurebito has collected about 100 kinds of Koryak materials for the
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples during her linguistic fieldwork on Koryak in the
Severo-Evensk region in Magadan state, Russia. At the museum, she and Irumi Sasakura
have tried to find a way to make efficient use of these resources through cooperation not
only with internal and external researchers but also with the local Koryak people.
As a result, in 2018 they opened the page named “Hokkaido Museum of Northern
Peoples Collection” (https://www.facebook.com/HopphmMuseumCollection/)
on Facebook and exhibited several traditional Koryak hats as a starter. Captions and
explanations on the hats are written in Russian along with Japanese so that the local
Koryak people can easily access them and comment freely. Meanwhile, SNS has drastically
increased in popularity among the Koryak people and our page is available for the locals.