北海道立北方民族博物館研究紀要
Online ISSN : 2435-0451
Print ISSN : 0918-3159
最新号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
  • 変わり続ける環境と社会に生きる北方民族
    近藤 祉秋
    原稿種別: 特集
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 1-6
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    This Special Issue is devoted to describing histories of northern fishing in the Anthropocene. Northern indigenous communities face new challenges as well as new opportunities as global warming progresses. Historical perspectives are necessary if we hope to understand Arctic and northern people's adaptations to global biocultural change in the Anthropocene.
  • 近藤 祉秋
    原稿種別: 論文
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 7-31
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    In this paper, I describe a history of indigenous salmon fishing technologies and management issues in the Upper Kuskokwim region, Alaska, U.S.A. As a traditional food, salmon has been an important part of culture for the Upper Kuskokwim Athabascan people. Intensive contacts with non-Natives in the early 20th century brought some changes to Upper Kuskokwim people’s subsistence technologies including fishwheels, which made it possible to obtain large amount of salmon efficiently in siltladen main streams of the Upper Kuskokwim tributaries. Conflicts with non-Native wildlife management regime began after Alaska's statehood when the State banned salmon fishing technology which involves blocking the entire width of a river or stream. As a result, Upper Kuskokwim people were forced to abandon their fishing weirs and fences at Salmon River since the late 1960s. After a decade or so, subsistence salmon fishing with rods and reels resumed at Salmon River. Nowadays, Salmon River Culture Camp has been organized by Nikolai Village Council to revitalize their fishing traditions. Since the 2010s, severe decline of king salmon populations in Alaska and Yukon has become a serious issue in indigenous societies of the areas. Local people think that commercial fishing (including bycatch) in high sea negatively affects the king salmon populations, while some others point out that increased activities by beavers and low-level of water in interior rivers might have been causing disruption of salmon's upstream migration. Through my observation of people's activities in salmon spawning areas, I argue that making a small opening to beaver dams (instead of totally destroying them) may actually benefit spawning salmon populations.
  • 大石 侑香
    原稿種別: 調査報告
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 33-44
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    This paper will consider the history of fishing of Khanty who live in Western Siberian forest and show their f lexibility that they have been adapted to natural environmental and social changes. Khanty's fishing has developed in the interactions between their local communities and outside world. In the Czarist Russia era in Western Siberia merchants found the economic value of fresh water fish resources and performed fish trade with Khanty. Then in the Soviet era Sovkhoz managed the fish production of indigenous peoples, and after the Soviet era municipal or private agricultural companies conducted indigenous fishing in the same way as Sovkhoz. At a glance, it looks like that Khanty's fishing form didn't change since Czarist times, except for the modern fishing tool. However this paper will reveal the continuity and discontinuity of their fishing form by examining the historical transition process of fishing and their reactions to fishing regulations, based on literatures and the author's fieldwork data in Yamal-Nenets autonomous region for about four months in total from 2016 to 2018. Finally it will indicate that Khanty have changed f lexibly their dependence on fishing activity, in order to deal with environmental and social changes.
  • モンゴル国北部タイガ地域における一事例
    西村 幹也
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 45-74
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    In this paper, I summarized the hunting, fishing and gathering activities of the Tuva people living in the Taiga district in the northern part of Mongolia from 1995 to 2018. The Tuva people is famous as the reindeer herders. In fact, however, they were hunters who used reindeer as a means of transport. There are many reports as reindeer livestock breeders in this area, but only a few are written about hunting activities. It was an era when the number of reindeer was extremely decreased around 1995 when I started the investigation. Under these circumstances, they returned to their lifestyle before socialism and began to rely heavily on hunting activities. However, now the hunting culture is about to disappear, due to the change in lifestyle in Taiga district. So, I thought maybe I should write down their activities what I saw and experienced about hunting activities in Taiga in post socialism era. This report will be one of the few materials that describes the actual hunting activity being lost in Taiga.
  • 中田 篤, グリゴレフ ステパン
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 75-84
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    本稿では、ウマ牧畜におけるアラースの重要性と、アラースの環境変化がウマ牧畜に及 ぼす影響の可能性について報告する。アラースとは、サーモカルストによって形成された 凹地で、多くの場合中央に湖沼のある草地となっている。サハ共和国チュラプチャ郡南西 部のカヤクスィト地区を調査地とし、住民へのインタビュー、参与観察によって調査をお こなった。  その結果、次の3点を確認した。第一にウマは馬群(種オス1、成メス10程度+仔)単位 で、アラースとその周辺で年間を通じて放牧されていることが明らかとなった。ウマ牧畜 における年間のサイクルとして、4月末~ 5月に仔ウマの誕生、7 ~ 8月に乾草生産、10 ~ 11月に屠畜、冬期(11月~ 5月初旬)にウマへの給餌(乾草と燕麦)がおこなわれる。ア ラースには管理小屋が設置され、放牧者は集落と小屋を行き来しながら生活している。  第二に、アラースにおける夏季の乾草生産状況から、アラースがウマの餌となる乾草の 生産場所として重要な存在であること、また乾草生産には夏季の好天が重要であることを 確認した。  第三に、地域住民は気温や降水量、動植物相の変化など、一定の環境変化を認識してい るものの、現状ではそうした変化が日常生活やウマ牧畜に深刻な影響を及ぼしているとは 考えていないことが示された。  しかし、今後、特に降水量の変化によってアラースの環境がより大きく変化した場合、 ウマ牧畜に対して重大な影響が生じると考えられる。
  • 春日部薫著『アリュート族に関する報告』(1943年)と注釈
    野口 泰弥, 大島 稔
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 85-110
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    In June in 1942, Japanese army invaded and occupied Attu and Kiska islands of the Aleutian Islands. In those days 42 Unangan (Aleut) people and two white man and woman lived on Attu Island. Some islanders died in the period of the Japanese occupation. On September in 1942, Japanese Army transferred these islanders (except one white woman) to Otaru city of Hokkaido prefecture in Japan and detained them until the end of war. In Otaru, Tuberculosis was going around among islanders so many people died. After the war, survivors returned to the U.S. However, the U.S. government didn’t allow them to return to Attu Island. This is the reason why Attu Island is now an uninhabited island. This text is a report on Unangan (Aleut) people of Attu Island which was written by Karl Kaoru Kasukabe(春日部薫: 1913-1995)during WWII. He followed Japanese Army as interpreter and attended “Aleutian Islands Campaign.” During his military service, Kasukabe researched culture and language of Attu people. The original text was handwritten between 1942 and 1943 and is housed in Hokkaido University Library (Identification No. 572.9/KAS/別シ). Generally speaking, ethnographic records about Attu islanders have been very rare. This text includes detailed ethnographic information about culture, history, and language of Attu people and partly includes important description about the background of Aleutian Islands Campaign. Therefore, this text is worth publishing for future study.
  • 中村 和之, 三宅 俊彦, 村串 まどか, 小林 淳哉, ゴルブノーフ セルゲイ V.
    原稿種別: 資料紹介
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 111-115
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    -Sangp'yŏng T'ongbo- is a coin used in the Joseon Dynasty which was first minted in 1633. In this paper, we will introduce two coins of the Sangp'ng T'ongbo which were discovered in the Sakhalin Island of the Russian Federation and report the result of chemical analysis of them using XRF. These two coins consist of tin (Sn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). But the chemical composition of two coins are not similar.
  • SNSを利用した現地との双方向的情報交換
    呉人 惠, 笹倉 いる美
    原稿種別: 資料紹介
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 117-123
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    The present report surveys the digital exhibition of Koryak materials at the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples added to Facebook in cooperation with Megumi Kurebito, at University of Toyama in 2018. Since 2005, Kurebito has collected about 100 kinds of Koryak materials for the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples during her linguistic fieldwork on Koryak in the Severo-Evensk region in Magadan state, Russia. At the museum, she and Irumi Sasakura have tried to find a way to make efficient use of these resources through cooperation not only with internal and external researchers but also with the local Koryak people. As a result, in 2018 they opened the page named “Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples Collection” (https://www.facebook.com/HopphmMuseumCollection/) on Facebook and exhibited several traditional Koryak hats as a starter. Captions and explanations on the hats are written in Russian along with Japanese so that the local Koryak people can easily access them and comment freely. Meanwhile, SNS has drastically increased in popularity among the Koryak people and our page is available for the locals.
  • 北方研究データベース
    笹倉 いる美
    原稿種別: 資料
    2019 年 28 巻 p. 125-131
    発行日: 2019/03/29
    公開日: 2019/08/19
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
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