Currently, the conservation of biodiversity ranks alongside the regulation of global warming as the most important global environmental problems. Biological invasions are considered one of the most important causative agents of declines in biodiversity. Therefore, in Article 8 (h), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) specified that each contracting party must undertake efforts to control alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats, or species. Furthermore, the "Aichi Target," based on the 2010 targets identified during CBD's 10^<th> Conference of Parties (COP10, held at Nagoya, Japan), proposed as Target 9 that, "By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment." Because the need to control alien species has increased worldwide, each country needs to possess or prepare regulation systems against biological invasions. On the other hand, economic globalization has recently undergone rapid advances, which increases the chances of introductions and transportation of alien species. Japan has a large economy and is simultaneously a resource-poor country that is largely dependent on the importation of foods and natural resources from abroad. Therefore, our country can be considered to have a constant high risk of invasion by alien species. Of course, Japan has some quarantine systems and regulations to counter alien species. However, the risk of invasion by alien species continues to rise irrespective of efforts to prevent their arrival and establishment. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is confronting the control of alien species by applying immense diplomatic pressure.
Adaptive management has been applied to manage wild deer populations in Japan. Here, I present a strategic schema for implementing complete adaptive wildlife management. This schema consists of a hierarchical distribution comprising one policy and three layers (strategy, operation and tactics) of measures for wildlife management. The lower layers aim to achieve the goals of the higher layers. An important precondition of adaptive management is that every measure should be evaluated properly. For the evaluation, control conditions must be established for each measure, although these are rarely established in actual management programs. I propose an alternative method for evaluating multiple measures.