This paper examines the relationships between organizational virtuousness, subjective well-being, and individual job performance, examining potential mediation effects. It uses a questionnaire survey and conditional process analysis to compare those relationships among French and Japanese employees. Job performance is divided into that related to one’s own core tasks—self-management—and that associated to working with others—leadership.
First, positive subjective well-being was found to fully mediate the relationship between integrity-related organizational virtuousness and self-management-related job performance for both French and Japanese respondents. Second, in the relationship between integrity-related organizational virtuousness and leadership-related job performance, positive subjective well-being acted as a partial mediator for the French sample only.
We have confirmed the importance of corporate virtue, especially that pertaining to firm integrity, in supporting directly or indirectly job performance. This suggests that firms must nurture a culture of integrity and tailor the management of their employees taking into account their cultural characteristics. While employee welfare has rightfully gained further recognition, it is shown to be indispensable to achieve higher core job performance and even more critical in firms with individualistic employees in order to achieve higher leadership.
The fourth industrial revolution is referred to as Industry 4.0. The current trend with manufacturing is automation and unparalleled levels of data exchange. To bring this trend to realization requires integrating the Internet of Things, Internet of Everything cyber-physical systems, cloud computing technologies, and more into manufacturing. Industry 4.0 involves a hyperconnected system that includes the smarter use of robotics to effectively and efficiently move to manufacture to new heights. With the use of all these technological systems, it is imperative to ensure that cyber security plays a role during the rise of this digital industrial revolution. In the United Kingdom, more than eighty manufacturing plants were hit by cyber attacks while threats in this specific industry have risen. The pitfalls of having hyperconnected systems leave an entire industry even more vulnerable than the traditional enterprise system design.
With the arrival of the era of IoT (and AI), many existing companies are in great haste to change their strategies and reorganize resources to grasp opportunities for starting new businesses, strengthening existing businesses, or defending existing businesses from the radical offence from companies which utilize IoT. However, because existing theories are unable to account for the unprecedented and simultaneous shift in strategy and resources, there exists no satisfactory approach which can analyze the emerging phenomenon and provide prescriptions for the companies rushing to adapt. For example, theories centered on strategy do not incorporate the concept of resources, and the dynamic capability (DC) perspective does not include a concept of strategy.
In order to improve this situation, this paper proposes a theory of dynamic managerial capabilities (DMCs). DMCs consists of dynamic strategy capabilities (DSCs) and dynamic resource capabilities (DRCs). The former explains change in strategy and the latter explains change in resources over time. The DMC theory offers a basic approach to managing this new era of IoT, with some elaboration including that about platform strategy, and gives researchers a great opportunity to build and develop upon the theory.
Markets change dramatically as technology improves. For example, the smartphone was originally launched as a communication device, not as a camera, but it is now possible to take high-quality photographs with its embedded image sensor. Similarly, borders between industries have become increasingly vague. How can a company adapt to such dynamic circumstances using its own technology and resources? To achieve this adaptation, the author considers two approaches: the first examines solutions that depend on the external environment such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and deregulation. The second inspects the activity level of the company. This paper introduces a ‘Technology Deployment Map’ (TDM) that extracts the activity levels and concludes with a perspective on dynamic capability through applications of the map.
This study aimed to clarify the mechanism by which alliance governance influences alliance performance by classifying the governance forms into equity governance, contractual governance, and relational governance, as well as by analyzing the roles of mediating factors (opportunistic behaviors, conflicting interests, synergy effects, and learning effects) involved in this relationship. Drawing on the perspectives of transaction cost theory, resource-based theory and knowledge-based theory, testable hypotheses were proposed to explain the mechanism, and they were tested using the data collected from a survey on strategic alliances which Japanese manufacturing firms have formed with foreign as well as domestic firms. As a result of the analysis, it was clarified that contractual governance has a positive influence on alliance performance through the control of opportunistic behaviors and conflicting interests; however, the enhancement of synergy effects and learning effects is not significant. On the other hand, relational governance has a significant influence on alliance performance through all of these four mediating factors. It was also shown that equity governance has no influence on alliance performance.