The EUV lithography (EUVL) utilizes 13-nm photons as a light source. Because of the short wavelength, it provides a very high resolution and is applicable to the fabrication of multiple generations of semiconductor devices from 45 nm hp down to 32 and even 22 nm hp. This makes EUVL the most promising next-generation lithography, which will follow ArF immersion lithography. However, because the wavelength is so short, bringing EUVL to the level of a practical production tool involves many difficult challenges, such as the development of a high-power light source, high-precision reflective optics, low-defect multilayer masks, a high-resolution high-sensitivity resist, and so on. To overcome the technical difficulties and accelerate the development of EUVL, various projects have been launched and are currently running under the management of SEMATECH (US), NEDEA+ (Europe), and ASET and EUVA (Japan). These activities have produced great advances in EUVL technology in the past several years. A full-field exposure tool for process development (α tool) will be delivered in 2006, and an exposure tool for mass production (γ tool) will be delivered two or three years after that. This presentation gives an overview of recent progress in EUVL.
The precision of electron beam lithography is analyzed using simulations of electron beam behavior in an electron optics, electron scattering behavior in a resist film on Si wafer, dissolution behavior of resist surface irradiated in the development process. Point spread functions because of the Coulomb repulsion of electrons in the optics, and scattering nature in the material are obtained. The placement accuracy is also determined by the analysis. This kind of simulations is so important that it should be continually improved to predict the precision of up-coming technologies in nanometer scale.
Nanoscale transistors are discussed in ballistic transport regime. Mechanism of operation as well as characteristics of the ballistic MOFET are analyzed in comparison to experimental devices. Carbon nanotube FETs are introduced briefly. A limitation to CMOS circuit operation due to thermal noise is also discussed.
We have developed a new resin-coated-foil(RCF) material named MCF-HD-45 to be embedded in PWBs to constitute capacitors. The material is composed of a thermosetting resin and a high dielectric constant(Dk) filler. The filler has a multimodal size distribution to attain high loading; a specific surfactant is also essential to preserve the stability of filler dispersion in varnish. These technologies warrant MCF-HD-45 a high Dk of 45 and excellent reliability. This paper describes the test results of MCF-HD-45 applied to a power amplifier module, a low pass filter of cellular phones, and a decoupling capacitor for noise suppression, as well as the benefit of the database for high frequency circuit simulation.
The Silicon device technology is facing to several difficulties. Especially, explosion of power consumption due to short channel effects (SCEs) becomes the biggest issue in further device scaling down. Fortunately, double-gate (DG) MOSFETs have promising potential to overcome this obstacle. The DG-MOSFET is recognized to be the most scalable MOSFET for its high SCEs immunity. In addition, independent DG-MOSFET (4T-DG-MOSFET) has great advantage to enable the threshold voltage control for the flexible power management. Through this work, we have realized ideal DG-MOSFETs using newly-developed vertical DG-MOSFET device technology. This article presents the effectiveness of the vertical DG-MOSFETs in future high-performance and ultra-low-power CMOS circuits.
The profile design methodology of a blanket SiGeC epitaxial layer for hetero junction bipolar transistor (HBT) is presented. Two important factors, Ge profile and Si cap are designed to minimize the carrier transit time in the intrinsic base region. Concurrently, a BF2 ion implantation and a cobalt silicide process for the extrinsic base were optimized to accommodate the Si cap thickness without relaxing a strain in SiGe layers caused by a reaction between Ge and Co. This design resulted in HBTs with 94-GHz cut-off frequency (fT), 81-GHz maximum oscillation frequency (fmax), and 0.45 dB minimum noise figure at 2 GHz, which could be utilized for consumer electronics products operating within a 2-5 GHz frequency range. The HBT was successfully implemented into 0.25-μm CMOS process with various kinds of passive devices to produce LSIs for consumer wireless electronics.
We have investigated solid-electrolyte switches that utilize electrochemical reactions (deposition and dissolution) of metallic ions. The switch turns off or on when a metallic bridge electrochemically forms or dissolves in the solid electrolyte. Each state is nonvolatile and the switching is repeatable up to 105 cycles. The promising application is a programmable switch in a field programmable logic because of its small size (< 30 nm) and low ON-resistance (< 100Ω). In this paper, we will discuss the electrical characteristics, operation principle, and applications of the solid electrolyte switch.
We have investigated electronic transport in single-wall carbon nanotubes attached to multiple electrodes. Resistance measurement using a pair of electrodes with different gaps enabled separate evaluation of nanotube resistivity and contact resistance. We found that the resistivity depends on nanotube diameter. Electrodes with gold or palladium exhibit similar contact resistance with an order of 10kΩ. Contact resistance is insensitive to back gate voltage, contrary to the Schottky-barrier transistor model. We also demonstrated the top-down control of diameter and position of Fe catalysts by means of “lithographically anchored nanoparticle synthesis (LANS)” for nanotube growth. Chemical vapor deposition by using these patterned particles successfully produced single-wall carbon nanotubes.
We have introduced an example of a system that embodies the concept of a ubiquitous communication service and explained the importance of low power consumption in the communicator that will serve as the bridge between the real world and the network for real-time services in which sensor data is acquired every second. An effective solution to the problem of high energy efficiency is to employ the synergy of combining low-voltage analog circuit technology and FD-SOI devices. Taking advantage of that synergy to reduce the power consumption of the communicator during operation to about 10 mW and employing intermittent operation with an activity rate of less than 1% would make it possible to support operation for one year or more with a commercial coin-type lithium battery.
Electrical characteristics of biological cells are important indices for obtaining information about the state and function of a cell. In this paper, we report the development of microdevices for physioelectirical measurement of cells by applying nano/microfabrication technologies. These devices enable the highly precise measurement of cell membrane potential and zeta potential of individual cells in a minimally invasive manner. Such a fusion of the microdevice technologies and biotechnologies is expected to provide powerful diagnostic tools for future cell study and cell therapy.
A novel DC current transformer (CT) based on the Faraday Effect has developed for DC railway power system. The advantages of the developed optical fiber CT are simple and light structure, easiness to handle and robustness to the external magnetic field caused by the adjacent electric current. The basic characteristics of the optical fiber CT are confirmed and compared with those of the conventional Hall CT and saturable reactor CT. Through the fired test and DC short circuit test, it is shown that the optical fiber CT realizes enough response and enough resolution for the practical application. Furthermore, its strong robustness to the external magnetic field is experimentally confirmed.
This paper proposes a method to detect cracks in the inner side of a drain by using the edge detection techniques. Cracks can be recognized as lines with a thin width. Therefore a method for extracting edges is assumed to be useful to detect cracks. To detect a crack with an arbitrary global form, the variable-sized directional filter is applied. This filter can be set at every pixel with an optimal size and with an optimal direction. After the filter process, the threshold technique that determines a threshold to detect a crack by using its global feature is processed. The experimental results show that the proposed variable-sized directional filter and the threshold technique were effective to detect cracks in the images of inner side of drain.
This paper presents a new framework for traffic flow control based on an integrated model description by means of a Hybrid Dynamical System (HDS). The geometrical information on the traffic network is characterized by a Hybrid Petri Net (HPN). Then, the algebraic behavior of traffic flow is transformed into a Mixed Logical Dynamical System (MLDS) form in order to introduce an optimization technique. These expressions involve both continuous evolution of traffic flow and event driven behavior of traffic light. HPN allows us to formulate the problem easily for complicated and large-scale traffic network due to its graphical understanding. MLDS enables us to optimize the control policy for traffic light by means of its algebraic manipulability and use of model predictive control framework. Since the behavior represented by HPN can be directly transformed into corresponding MLDS form, the seamless incorporation of two different modeling schemes provide a systematic design scenario for traffic flow control.
In this paper, we show an approach to acquire a rule which is capable of achieving effective elevator services. The allocation of elevators to hall calls is taken as the decision variable and the Pitt approach of a Genetics-Based Machine Learning (GBML) method is designed according to the representation and the characteristics of the problem. We use a rule architecture in which a combination of some measures is directly encoded as a unit-rule and an elevator allocation procedure is represented as a rule set composed of some unit-rules. Five measures are developed based on the results of the preliminary experiment and it is shown that the rule as the weighted summation of the measures (called WS) is more effective than a conventional elevator allocation rule. In computational experiments, the up-peak, down-peak and two-way traffic patterns are considered and three rule sets are acquired by applying the GBML method. Based on the results, we can confirm that the GBML method can acquire some unit-rules appropriate for the targeting traffic patterns, and we can mention that, for some presumed traffic patterns, the possibility of constructing an effective rule set by combining some specific rule sets.
In this paper, we propose an autonomous decentralized scheduling method with an optimization function of lotsizing and scheduling for multi-stage aluminum production line. The proposed method repeats the generation of schedule at each production process and data exchange among scheduling subsystems until a feasible schedule for the entire plant is derived. Two types of lotsizing and scheduling methods are compared for various size of example problems. The results demonstrate that the simultaneous optimization of lotsizing and scheduling must be considered when intermediate storage cost is embedded in the objective function.
This paper proposes a robust independent component analysis (ICA) approach for noise reduction. Noise reduction is a difficult problem in ICA model. In general signal processing applications, there are more than one interference signal which may have unknown characteristics. In these situations, traditional linear ICA may lead to poor results. Hence, noise reduction is preferred to be performed with nonlinear adaptive filtering. In this paper, a radial basis function network (RBFN) is employed to transform the observed signals into output space in a nonlinear manner. The weights of RBFN are updated by utilizing a modified fixed-point algorithm. The proposed method has not only the capacity of recovering the mixed signals, but also reducing noise with unknown characteristics from observed signals. The simulation results and analysis show that the proposed algorithm is suitable for practical unsupervised noise reduction problem.
We present a method to visualize a large mount of monitored values of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems on small screens of cell phones using supervised equipment and its relations. The aim is to provide easy views and navigation on small screens for operators to obtaining information about plants and to ascertain plant status in cases of emergency. In this method, pieces of equipment and relations between them form an equipment graph, and closely related pieces of equipment are shown by extracting them from the graph based on a focused piece of equipment. The relations have two characteristics: (i) there are various kinds of relations, and (ii) closeness of relations varies by viewpoints. The result of the extraction depends on the relation closeness. Users can check related pieces of equipment by a simple operation selecting another piece of equipment from displayed items and setting a viewpoint. Our experiments show the advantage of this method. The counts of screens shown to check plant status reduced to 40 %, extracted items were appropriate to show, and viewpoints were easy to select.
In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to estimate a driver's internal cognitive process by his/her eye movement and demonstrated the estimation process by a computer simulation. However, the evaluation of the proposed model in real human driving behavior still remains to be realized. In this study, we analyzed gaze movements of real drivers measured while they were using a driving simulator. The results revealed a partial discrepancy between the eye position distribution generated by the proposed model and the eye position observed in actual human behavior. We discuss on the reason of this discrepancy and improved of our model.