電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
130 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の30件中1~30を表示しています
特集:最新のパワー半導体技術とその応用—シリコンとワイドバンドギャップ半導体—
巻頭言
特集解説
  • 寺島 知秀, 白石 正樹, 岩室 憲幸
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 912-916
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Global warming is already a problem in the world, highly effective use for energy is important. Power semiconductor devices are key components in saving energy, and improvements of performance are strongly demanded. Nowadays, Power MOSFET and IGBT those are the Si devicec are improved by technological developments such as Super Junction and FS-IGBT, and the performance nears the limit. On the other hand, SiC and GaN those are the wide band gap semiconductor devices have potential that greatly exceed the performance limitation of the Si devices, but have still problems, such as long term reliability and costs. This paper presents recent technology trend in Power devices, and those latest reports.
  • 藤本 辰雄
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 917-919
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recent development and current status on the growth technology of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystals, long-known as a promising wide bandgap semiconductor material applicable to electronic devices of higher performance, are briefly described. The micropipe defect density, which is known to cause fatal problems in SiC devices, has been reduced significantly, and up to date no longer cited as the most harmful defect for device applications. In addition, such technological advance has led to the increase of the crystal diameters up to 100mm, evoking acceleration of SiC device productions.
特集論文
<電子物性・デバイス>
<電気回路・電子回路>
  • 櫻井 直樹, 由良 昌士, 石井 利昭, 白頭 拓真, 森 睦宏
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 955-960
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    1200V high-power IC for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) was developed for the first time. This IC consists of the 30V lower and upper arm ICs fabricated by Silicon On Insulator (SOI) process, 1200V discrete power MOSFETs for level shift circuit, and 30V discrete power MOSFETs for the output stage. The chips were mounted by BGA (Ball Grid Array) technology with Pb free solder balls. With these technologies, the high blocking voltage of 1200V was achieved without a special high-voltage IC process. In addition, the soft and low loss switching was realized by combination of high power output stage and the soft gate circuits, which this power IC can drive an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) even for over 100kW class inverter.
  • 池田 佳子, 大村 一郎, 土門 知一, 山口 好広, 川口 雄介, 山口 正一
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 961-965
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper proposes a nondestructive current measurement using the micro-magnetic probing technique for the surface mounted power MOSFET on VRM board to discuss the self-turn-on phenomenon. Whereas the conventional method employs a loop coil structure around the current flow, a notable feature of the proposed technique is the sensor part which is much smaller than that of conventional methods. This method designed to measure the intensity of a partial magnetic field, therefore enables the non-destructive measurement just by setting the magnetic probe on the MOSFET package. A calibration technique is introduced to reproduce current waveform and we confirm that the obtained current waveform agrees with that obtained by the conventional Current Transformer. Using the proposed technique, we succeed of detecting a shoot through current waveform of high-side power MOSFET during self-turn-on phenomenon in VRM board. We also sense non-uniform current flow among 3 parallel low-side power MOSFETs caused by board layout location. This study demonstrates the capability of sensing local transient current of VRM board.
論文
<電気回路・電子回路>
  • 粟井 郁雄
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 966-971
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The design theory for a band pass filter (BPF) is applied for the analysis of the resonant-type wireless power transfer system. Since the system transmits the electromagnetic energy through evanescent wave coupling between two resonators, it is just a two-stage band pass filter, as long as the circuit matching is taken into account.
    The present design theory allows different terminal resistances, that is, the generator and load impedances can be different. Since the load for the power transfer varies according to the practical applications, matching ability for arbitrary load is quite important.
    In addition, the transfer loss is analytically derived by the BPF theory, which has not been given so far. The analytical expression shows what parameters are crucial for the wireless power transfer.
    Some comments are given about the term “magnetic resonance” that is frequently used among the researchers of wireless power transfer. It is only adequate to describe the resonance of the precession of spins (magnetic moments) that is magnetized. “Magnetic resonance” should be read “magnetic coupling” for the present system.
<情報通信工学>
  • 久保 芳之, 和田 光司
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 972-979
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    We propose microstrip-line balanced filters with controllable attenuation poles by using tapped resonators. These filters are basically composed of a coupled-line and tapped resonators. The coupled-line provides bandpass responses with attenuation poles and balanced filter operation. Also, the tappd resonators provide bandpass responses and attenuation poles. The position and number of the attenuation pole are controlled by the choice of the kind of the tapped resonator. In this paper, we examine a filter with an unbalanced port and a balanced port as well as a filter with a balanced port and a balanced port. The presented filters are simulated with commercial simulators and are measured with a vector network analyzer. We have confirmed that the bandpass characteristics with controllable attenuation poles and balanced characteristics(amplitude and phase balance performances) are obtained. The measured results of the fabricated filters agree well with the simulated results.
  • 落合 麻衣子, 岡野 好伸
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 980-987
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Recently, radio-frequency identification (RFID) has been gaining interest as a distribution management system to replace bar codes. An important difference between the RFID system and the bar code system is that, in the former, data are changeable by remote control. A system for managing gathered tags (13.56 MHz carrier wave) and a system for long-distance identification (953 MHz carrier wave) are now suitable for practical use. For continuous operation, these must integrate seamlessly. However, some disadvantages exist in long-distance identification with the 13.56 MHz carrier wave systems. To identify a gathered tag accurately, mutual interference must be suppressed. Therefore, we developed a novel emission device based on the coaxial cable leakage of a railway cellular phone service. Specifically, multiple small slots are opened on a flat shielded microstrip line. The result of an investigation into the optimum slot shape to suppress mutual interference is reported here. It is also experimentally confirmed that the proposed system can accurately identify gathered tags.
<生体医工学・福祉工学>
  • 黒野 正裕, 松尾 志郎, 谷口 和彦, 湯藤 彰, 上林 隆司, 鰕原 恵介
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 988-995
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    A new method of human condition monitoring was proposed by using the optical fiber embedded sheet sensor and the polarization fluctuation measurement system and the fundamental performance was demonstrated. This paper describes the principle of the measurement, the configuration of demonstration system and the abilities of condition estimation. As results of fundamental experiments and of field tests, the human condition including large action, resting condition on the bed and keeping off the bed could be estimated by the level of polarization fluctuation. The respiratory condition was detected by the cyclic fluctuation of polarization in the quiet condition. In addition, a precise method was discussed to distinguish the turning actions by the shift patern of the center of polarization states between two quiet conditions before and after the large action.
  • 井手 順子, 杉 剛直, 中村 政俊, 柴崎 浩
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 996-1002
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Human motor control is achieved by the appropriate motor commands generating from the central nerve system. A test of visual target tracking is one of the effective methods for analyzing the human motor functions. We have previously examined a possibility for improving the hand movement on visual target tracking by additional assistant force through a simulation study. In this study, a method for compensating the human hand movement on visual target tracking by adding an assistant force was proposed. Effectiveness of the compensation method was investigated through the experiment for four healthy adults. The proposed compensator precisely improved the reaction time, the position error and the variability of the velocity of the human hand. The model-based compensator proposed in this study is constructed by using the measurement data on visual target tracking for each subject. The properties of the hand movement for different subjects can be reflected in the structure of the compensator. Therefore, the proposed method has possibility to adjust the individual properties of patients with various movement disorders caused from brain dysfunctions.
<システム・計測・制御>
  • 紀平 和俊, 山田 啓一
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1003-1009
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper proposes a method for estimating the degree of “Negligent driving tendency” of a following vehicle driver from behavioral information of the following vehicle that can be observed from own vehicle. The relation between the degree of the tendency and the vehicle behavior was investigated for 16 subjects by an experiment on a driving simulator. As a result, it was found that the correlation between the degree of the tendency and the minimum value of TTC (Time to Collision) to the leading vehicle is high. Based on the result, a method for estimating the degree of “Negligent driving tendency” of a following vehicle driver from observed TTC values was proposed and the performance was evaluated for the data on the driving simulator. Also, the feasibility of the proposed method was examined by analyzing driving behavior data of actual vehicles on public roaDS and the possibility that the method is applicable to actual vehicles was shown.
  • 北村 和男, 高地 伸夫, 渡邉 広登, 山田 光晴, 金子 俊一
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1010-1016
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    We have developed a digital photogrammetry system, which enables us to make all-around 3D measurement using the object pictures obtained through the integrated works of digital cameras, projectors and our specific PC software. The system consists of units, each of which is again consists of two synchronized digital cameras and projectors with PC program.
    The measuring process is now simplified by making all the operations of orientation and measurement analysis automatic; and this, with a single push of a button. Automation of orientation was realized by creating a calibration box covered by color-coded targets, which enables us to make exterior orientation parameters of the cameras automatically.
    For stereo-matching, in order to minimize the mismatching, we invented Coarse-to Fine Strategy Method by integrating OCM (Orientation Code Matching) or robust matching with LSM (Least Square Matching). Therefore, improving the accuracy of the initial values of OCM, using LSM for fine measurement and making the involved operations automatic, we enhanced the quality of surface measurement and succeeded to shorten the measuring time considerably.
    In this paper we are presenting the report on our system of human body measurement and its processing method of stereo-matching, as well as on the result of comparing assessment of each matching method.
  • 山中 一雄, 西澤 洋樹, 関根 栄子
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1017-1022
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The linear state estimation problem is revisited in a new formulation. The state to be estimated is that of a linear system driven by white noise. An estimator of Kalman-Luenberger type is used to estimate the unknown state on the basis of partial observation disturbed by white noise. By “partial observation” we mean that only a linear functional of the state is accessible with noise. The coefficient vector, which is reffered to as “observation gain”, is the object of suitable choice as well as the estimator gain while only the estimator gain is to be optimised in usual formulation. Performance criterion is a weighted quadratic mean of the state estimation error, in which the coeffficient is chosen as function of the observation gain so as to make the problem well-posed. The Kalman-Bucy filter applies for the purpose of minimising this criterion with respect to the estimator gain, while the LQ regulator applies for minimising the same criterion with respect to the observation gain. Alternate application of Kalman-Bucy filter and LQ regulator generates a point sequence in the product space of those of the two kind of gains. It is shown that the simultaneously optimal solution can be obtained as an accumulation point of the series. A simple example illustrates the results.
<知能,ロボティクス>
  • Sylvain Kamdem, Hidehiro Ohki, Naomichi Sueda
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1023-1033
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Several methods of reinforcement learning in continuous state and action spaces that utilize fuzzy logic have been proposed in recent years. This paper introduces Fuzzy Sarsa(λ), an on-policy algorithm for fuzzy learning that relies on a novel way of computing replacing eligibility traces to accelerate the policy evaluation. It is tested against several temporal difference learning algorithms: Sarsa(λ), Fuzzy Q(λ), an earlier fuzzy version of Sarsa and an actor-critic algorithm. We perform detailed evaluations on two benchmark problems : a maze domain and the cart pole. Results of various tests highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms and show that Fuzzy Sarsa(λ) outperforms all other algorithms tested for a larger granularity of design and under noisy conditions. It is a highly competitive method of learning in realistic noisy domains where a denser fuzzy design over the state space is needed for a more precise control.
<音声画像処理・認識>
  • 木村 文香, 目加田 慶人, 高橋 友和, 井手 一郎, 村瀬 洋, 玉津 幸政
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1034-1041
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    We propose a method to recognize the visibility of traffic signals from a driver's perspective. The more that driver assistance systems are equipped for practical use, the more information that is being provided for drivers. So each information provision system should select appropriate information based on the situation. Our goal is to realize a system that quantifies the visibility of traffic signals from images taken by in-vehicle cameras and appropriately provides information to drivers.
    In this paper, we propose a method to measure visibility by two criterions, detectability and discriminability. Each index is computed using image processing techniques. Experiments using actual images showed that the proposed indices correspond well to human perception.
  • 竹内 英世, 保黒 政大, 梅崎 太造
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1042-1053
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    KARAOKE is a popular amusement for old and young. Many KARAOKE machines have singing evaluation function. However, it is often said that the scores given by KARAOKE machines do not match human evaluation. In this paper a KARAOKE scoring method strongly correlated with human evaluation is proposed. This paper proposes a way to evaluate songs based on the distance between singing pitch and musical scale, employing a vibrato extraction method based on template matching of spectrum. The results show that correlation coefficients between scores given by the proposed system and human evaluation are -0.76∼-0.89.
<ソフトコンピューティング・学習>
  • 加藤 省三, 荒木 睦大, 小越 康宏, 谷口 秀次, 森 幹男
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1054-1060
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The processing of kana-to-kanji conversion can be classified into two categories of processing: The first is the processing to detect the boundaries of words in non-segmented kana strings, and the second is the processing to select the candidate of kanji-kana words. Also, the methods of kana-to-kanji conversion can be mainly classified into two types from the point of view of the two processing described above: One is to conduct simultaneously these two processing (called Method-A), and the other is to conduct sequentially them (called Method-B), namely, to detect the boundaries of kana words by using Markov chain model of kana words, and then to convert kana words to kanji-kana words and to select the maximum likely candidates by using Markov chain model of kanji-kana words. This paper evaluates two types of kana-to-kanji conversion method (Method-A and Method-B) by using 2nd-order Markov chain model of words. Through the experiments by using statistical data of daily Japanese newspaper, Method-A and Method-B are evaluated by the criteria of the accuracy rate of conversion, the conversion processing time and the memory capacity. From the results of the experiments, it is concluded that the Method-B is superior to Method-A in the conversion processing time and the memory capacity and is effective in kana-to-kanji conversion of bunsetsu.
  • 橋本 博幸, 高口 雄介, 中村 静香
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1061-1071
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Instability of calculation process and increase of calculation time caused by increasing size of continuous optimization problem remain the major issues to be solved to apply the technique to practical industrial systems. This paper proposes an enhanced quadratic programming algorithm based on interior point method mainly for improvement of calculation stability. The proposed method has dynamic estimation mechanism of active constraints on variables, which fixes the variables getting closer to the upper/lower limit on them and afterwards releases the fixed ones as needed during the optimization process. It is considered as algorithm-level integration of the solution strategy of active-set method into the interior point method framework. We describe some numerical results on commonly-used bench-mark problems called “CUTEr” to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, the test results on large-sized ELD problem (Economic Load Dispatching problems in electric power supply scheduling) are also described as a practical industrial application.
<情報処理・ソフトウェア>
  • 関山 宜孝, 加藤 ジェーン, 渡邉 豊英
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1072-1077
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Predicting future behaviors of vehicles is addressed in some traffic monitoring systems. However there has not been the kind of emphasis on interactions between behaviors of multiple vehicles. We focus on the interactions and introduce a concept of Attainable Region in order to predict future behaviors of vehicles. Attainable Region is defined as a region where a vehicle can attain in a few seconds. The regions are calculated by combining prior knowledge about traffic scenes with observed information. Interactions between vehicles' behaviors can be estimated by checking overlaps between the regions. Through evaluation experiments, we show the feasibility of prediction with Attainable Region.
  • 松村 幸輝, 爲國 有司, 木村 周平
    2010 年 130 巻 6 号 p. 1078-1088
    発行日: 2010/06/01
    公開日: 2010/06/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.
研究開発レター
<ソフトコンピューティング・学習>
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