IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
Volume 134 , Issue 4
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
Special Issue on “Nano-Bio Physics and Technology Using Quantum Beam”
Special Issue Paper
<Electronic Materials and Devices>
  • Yuichi Haruyama, Makoto Okada, Yasuki Nakai, Takao Ishida, Shinji Mats ...
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 468-472
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    The electronic structure of fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs) with different chain length was investigated by the using photoelectron and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. From the measurements of the photoelectron spectra in the wide region and in the C 1s core-level region, chemical compositions and components of the F-SAMs with different chain length were clarified. In the C K-edge NEXAFS spectra of the F-SAMs, the several spectral features were observed and the intensity of the features at 292 and 299 eV decreased with increasing the incidence angle of the excitation photon. Based on the results of the photoelectron and NEXAFS spectra measurements, the electronic structure of four kinds of F-SAMs with different chain length is discussed.
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  • Yuden Teraoka, Mayumi Tode, James Robert Harries, Akitaka Yoshigoe
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 473-478
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    The desorption of deuterium molecules from a V(001) surface is limited by deuterium diffusion in the oxide layer. The distribution of desorption temperature can be controlled by varying the oxide layer thickness. The desorption of deuterium molecules existing near the surface shifts towards a higher temperature region over room temperature. The desorption of deuterium molecules dissolving in the bulk could not be controlled because the oxide layer is still degraded near the higher desorption temperature. Whether the deuterium desorption can be controlled by the oxide layer or not is determined by a relationship between oxide degradation temperatures and deuterium desorption temperatures.
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  • Sachiko T. Nakagawa, Tomoaki Murakami, Masakatsu Nomura, Hisao Kanda, ...
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 479-483
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    In order to produce an effective semiconductor device an implanted dopant should be located on a crystalline lattice site, which requires a so-called post annealing (PA) step. The period of the PA takes a few milliseconds at the minimum, which is far beyond the time-limit of an empirical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation discussed here. Nevertheless, faint changes in the initial stage of the PA govern the following events. What happens after PA starts as time develops has been investigated in the frame work of the MD simulation in terms of the long-range-order (LRO) parameter. The LRO did not recover continuously as was expected, but instead exhibited spikes at almost regular time-intervals. This profile revealed that the restoration of crystallinity undergoes synergistically and oscillatory, i.e., local phonons emerge sporadically prior to the final stage of PA.
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<Optics, Quantum Electronics>
  • Yuta Nakamura, Yuki Nakata, Kaori Nakajima, Tadao Tanabe, Yutaka Oyama
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 484-488
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Many biomolecular compounds used for medical supplies possess the chiral property of L- and D-form (enantiomers). Different points of chirality are optical activity, bioactivity and circular dichroism. So, there is necessity to discriminate chirality with the objective of application to medical production line. In this study, we discriminate chirality of amino acids as one of the biomolecular compound materials by terahertz vibrational circular dichroism (THz-VCD) spectroscopy for the novel discrimination method.  The inspection target materials of this study were glutamic acid and threonine. THz-VCD spectra were measured with a frequency tunable THz light source based on difference frequency generation from a GaP crystal. These spectra were obtained by right-hand and left-hand circular polarized THz wave which were converted by quarter-wave plate from linear polarized THz light around 2 THz. As a result, there are expected differences in those absorbance between right and left circular polarized light. For both glutamic acid and threonine, the absorption difference of D-form has shown positive value, in contrast that the absorbance of L-form is negative value. These results indicate that it is possible to discriminate chirality by THz-VCD spectroscopy.
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  • Sho Amano, Tomoaki Inoue, Shuji Miyamoto
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 489-494
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Microprocessing of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) samples was carried out using soft X-ray from a laser produced Xe plasma source we developed. In the Teflon sample, a contact angle of a modified surface with a water drop increased from 90° to 110° to by an irradiation without a mirror and a mask, while the angle decreased to 50° by an irradiation with them. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous microprotuberances and a masked pattern having micro-concavities on the each sample surface. These suggested that the changes of the contact angle were ascribable to the microstructures of the Teflon surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the Teflon surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by microprocessing using the laser plasma X-ray. In the PMMA sample, its etching rate was investigated using an irradiation with a large number of pulses (192000 pulses) and a low power density of 8×104 W/cm2. The etching rate was calculated to be 5 pm/pulse and this was concluded to be a result by only photo-etching without thermal effect. We demonstrated pure photo-etching depth of ∼1 µm.
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  • Satoshi Hashimoto, Sayaka Chin, Karin Kobayashi, Kenji Kawata, Dazhi L ...
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 495-501
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Tunable and high-power terahertz radiation sources using relativistic electron beams from a compact linear accelerator LEENA are under development. The synchrotron radiation and Smith-Purcell radiation in THz regime were successfully measured. The coherent radiation power from an electron bunch shorter than 1ps is estimated theoretically to be about 107 larger than the incoherent one. Recent experimental results on the generation of the THz radiation and the numerical results on the high-power coherent radiation from a short electron bunch are reported.
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  • Koichi Kan, Jinfeng Yang, Atsushi Ogata, Takafumi Kondoh, Masao Gohdo, ...
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 502-509
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Ultrashort, e.g., picosecond or femtosecond, electron beams are useful for electro-magnetic radiation production in terahertz (THz) range due to the inverse of 1 ps bunch length corresponding to the frequency of 1 THz. The electron beams were generated by a photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun linac. Electron beams with energy of ∼4 MeV at the RF gun exit were accelerated up to ∼30 MeV in a linac. The accelerated electron beams were compressed by a magnetic bunch compressor, resulting in femtosecond pulse width. THz radiation of the order on 0.1 THz based on coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR) using hollow dielectric tubes and Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) using a metallic grating or metasurface were reported.
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<Biomedical Engineering>
  • Hidenori Nagai, Yusuke Fuchiwaki
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 510-514
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a key technology of genetic testing, but the long thermal cycling time has been the problem to apply the rapid diagnosis of pathogenic organisms and cancer. We describe a simple, portable, and rapid genetic testing system based on ultrafast segment-flow and fluorescent detection. Especially, we improved the flow-through PCR to accelerate the thermal cycling time and simplify the operation for the practical use. The PCR solution was injected with a small volume about several microliter, and flowed as segment-flow by an air syringe. The segment of PCR solution was moved in a serpentine microchannel on a microfluidic device over two temperature zones for denaturation and annealing/extension reactions. The base plate formed upon the serpentine microchannel pattern was made of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and covered with a thin transparent film. Furthermore, the specialized portable system was developed for the microfluidic device of segment-flow PCR. The heater units, a syringe pump, fluorescence detector, PC were integrated in a suitcase for portable use. Using this portable system, a model microorganism of anthrax and a point mutation of FGFR3 gene were successfully detected within 6.5 min.
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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Jinfeng Yang, Yoichi Yoshida, Hiromi Shibata
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 515-520
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    The revealing and understanding of ultrafast structural-change induced dynamics are essential not only in physics, chemistry and biology, but also are indispensable for the development of new materials, new devices and applications. A new radio-frequency electron gun based ultrafast relativistic electron microscopy (UEM) has being developed in Osaka University to probe directly structural changes at the atomic scale with sub-100 fs temporal resolution in materials. The first prototype of femtosecond time-resolved relativistic-energy UEM has been constructed at end of October in 2012. Both relativistic-energy electron diffraction and image measurements have been succeeded using a femtosecond electron beam. In this paper, the development of the UEM prototype and the first experiments of relativistic-energy electron imaging were reported.
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Special Issue Technical Note
<Optics, Quantum Electronics>
  • Andrew Domondon, Nandor Bokor, Yoshinori Iketaki
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 521-523
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    This paper proposes a method of microscopy we call “edge-enhanced soft X-ray phase-contrast microscopy”. It employs a Hilbert-transform microscope setup and exploits the fact that for the same soft X-ray wavelength there is a marked difference in the refractive index for water and carbon. This method produces an edge-enhancement phase contrast image of the molecules that results from the difference in how the X-rays interact with water and the organic molecule of interest. Since this method can detect very small phase jumps, it enables one to observe molecules in vivo with high spatial resolution and high contrast. The results of simulating the technique using the absorption spectrum of tryptophan are presented and suggest that the proposed method will be useful for obtaining images of biological molecules in vivo.
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Special Issue Letter
<Electronic Materials and Devices>
Paper
<Optics, Quantum Electronics>
  • Masato Wada, Ken-ichi Watabe, Sho Okubo, Tomonari Suzuyama, Feng-Lei H ...
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 526-533
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    We have investigated the performance of an optical carrier transfer system for a remote comparison of optical clocks. In the frequency transfer system, technical problems and fundamental principles limit the coherent transfer on a long-haul optical fiber. They contribute to noise processes that come from the propagation delay in the fiber, the design of an interferometer, burst length fluctuations of the fiber, asymmetrical propagation characteristics, and so on. The feasibility of a full optical link with high stability is discussed. The phase detection with a high degree of precision and cancellation of the fiber-induced noise on the round-trip light are achieved with a well-known standard technique using an all-fiber-based interferometer. We report the characteristics of these noise processes with results on a spooled fiber. An Allan deviation of the compensated link which is extended to 90 km reaches 5 × 10-18 close to the theoretical limit imposed by the delay-unsuppressed fiber noise at averaging time of 103s.
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<Information and Communication Technology>
  • Kazuyuki Morioka, David Asano
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 534-542
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    In this paper, a construction method for phase spreading sequences which is suitable for CPM-CDMA systems is proposed. Using these sequences, the performance of asynchronous CPM-CDMA systems with traditional BPSK/OQPSK-CDMA systems and the tradeoff between spreading factor and modulation parameters are considered. Numerical results show that the optimal modulation index for CPFSK-CDMA systems is h=0.5 and the performance is better for lower values of BbTc in GMSK-CDMA systems. Also, we found that the user capacities of MSK-CDMA systems are 2.3 times larger than that of BPSK/OQPSK-CDMA systems.
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  • Masakatsu Ogawa
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 543-549
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Recently, IEEE802.11 wireless LAN devices have been embedded in various portable appliances. Mobile routers are widely used to connect these appliances to the Internet. They have two communication interfaces: one is a terminal for a mobile network, such as 3G, LTE, and WiMAX, and the other is an access point for a wireless LAN. The mobile routers employ power-saving functions for both the mobile network and the wireless LAN. Because each function operates independently, it might be expected that the consumed power could be reduced further through collaborative operation of these two functions. This paper assumes the IEEE802.16m advanced mobile station (AMS) as a terminal of mobile network for mobile routers. In IEEE802.11, the access point (AP) sends buffered packet information to stations (STAs) by means of beacons. Our proposed method exploits this mechanism, and adjusts the traffic indication timing on the IEEE802.16m advanced base station (ABS) side based on the beacon creation time on IEEE802.11 side of the mobile router. Simulation results reveal that power consumption is reduced and delay is reduced except during congestion.
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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Syunya Kato, Koichi Hidaka
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 550-559
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    This paper considers the usefulness of modeling of vehicle based on the visual feedback system by closed-loop identification. In this paper, we consider a radio control car (RC-car) that is equipped with an onboard camera. A steering of RC-car is the input and a feature which can be calculated from a set of feature points on an image is the output. This research goal is to design the two models for the visual feedback controller. The RC-car runs not only on straight but any curves. For this reason, we need to measure output data on curve driving with random input in order to design the curve model using input and output data sets. The Modeling based on system identification has to use the persistently exciting signal, the driving of RC-car with random input is however difficult. It is necessary to get input-output data to the controller. Therefore, we have to use a closed-loop identification for taking data of identification. We make a model of RC-car by closed-loop identifications and we investigate validity.
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<Intelligence, Robotics>
  • Toshihiro Osumi, Hirotaka Osawa, Michita Imai
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 560-570
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Bullying is a serious problem, especially at elementary school and junior high school and occurs all over the world with some differences. As a countermeasure against bullying, many interventions and preventive programs were proposed (e.g., counseling, dispatch of advisers, group work, suspension order) and there are many researches about analysis of bullying and intervention and preservation strategies. However, a lot of samples and long times are required for analysis of the strategies in the real world. And we believe simulations of the bullying and the countermeasures are effective as a quick and easy analysis. In this paper, we developed a simulation model of school bullying "within-group" or “within-class” that is based on “Socion theory”. The primary feature of “Socion theory” is that each agent has an imagined personal relationship. We implemented a strategy named conforming strategy to simulate the bullying caused by conforming behaviors of students. The student agents who implement the conforming strategy watch the human relationship around them and update their own imagined relationships. Then they conform to other students to get good positions or keep their grounds on the basis of simulation results based on their own imagined relationships. The result of the experiment shows the conforming strategy increases the probability of bullying and the number of victims, and conforming behaviors increase the probability of bullying in the real world. We also show a state that a teacher underestimates or cannot perceive bullying when it occurred, and many teachers underestimate or cannot perceive bullying in the real world. Totally, we show that “Socion theory” has expressiveness to use as a foundation of bullying simulation.
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<Media Information, User Interface>
  • Hirotoshi Amemiya, Yuki Yamagishi, Jun Kawai, Shigeo Kaneda
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 571-580
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Dietary education continues to attract attention. One target of such attention is the meals consumed alone by senior citizens whose eating habits are often unhealthy, inadequate, and irregular. To solve this problem, the life-log data of eating habits are effective. However, conventional sensing approaches with video cameras suffer from privacy concerns and low accuracy that reflects poor lighting conditions. This paper proposes to solve this problem with a new method that records an ingestion log without burdening users. Our proposed method, which focuses on the closed circuit conductivity that is constructed from food, chopsticks, and a human body, determines the resistance value of the closed circuit and detects two actions: grasping food and carrying it to the mouth. We implemented our prototype chopsticks and experimentally verified our proposed methods. The accuracy of carrying food to the mouth exceeded 99% evaluation also clarified that our proposed method identifies participants who fail to join meal communities of young men/women around a table.
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  • Wakana Nagata, Shinji Sako, Tadashi Kitamura
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 581-586
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    Though violin has been widely used in classical music, violin performance involves a problem that how to determine fingering from a musical score. In fingering determination, beginners often consider the ease for playing, but intermediates take account of expressiveness as well according to their skill level grown. Therefore, we aim to develop an automatic fingering estimation method to assist both beginners and intermediates in finding their appropriate fingering. The problem of fingering estimation is basically to find a most probable state sequence, where a state represents a pattern of left hand corresponding to a musical note from the score. We define the state of left hand as a combination of four parameters. The appropriateness of states is locally defined as a state transition cost and pressing string cost. The problem is how to set the model parameters to adjust the desired skill level. We focused on that the note length affects the difference in violin fingering. In our method, appropriate fingering according to the skill level can be estimated by changing relation between the note length and expressiveness. By comparing estimated fingering with textbook's fingering and subjective evaluation, we confirmed that our method can estimate appropriate fingering for a desired skill level.
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<Speech and Image Processing, Recognition>
  • Kiyoshi Matsuo, Yoshimitsu Aoki
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 587-598
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    This paper describes a method for accurately interpolating a low-resolution depth image using a high-resolution color image. In our method, first, tangent planes on each superpixel are estimated from the sparse depth information and dense color information. Then, the neighboring superpixels that have smooth-connectable tangent planes are connected, and the image segmentation to smooth surfaces are achieved. Finally, the low-resolution depth image is interpolated using this smooth surface segmentation.  In experiments with images from the Middlebury stereo datasets, our method interpolates each image at a high rate, and achieves the lowest error when compared to existing techniques.
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<Energy, Environment and Sustainability>
  • Yasushi Tomita, Junichi Murata
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 599-606
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    For large industrial and commercial users of energy, energy saving is an essential issue not only for reducing energy costs but also for taking social responsibility for environmental problem. We have developed an energy analysis simulator for multi-utility systems in factories and buildings as a design support tool for energy saving. It simulates primary energy consumption at each time cross section for annual and seasonal hourly load profile data and aggregates them in proportion to the number of days in each season to calculate the total annual consumption. It compares the total consumptions by two system configurations before and after improvement for the same load profile and then evaluates the amount of energy saved. Because utility system configurations differ from site to site, it is important for users to be able to flexibly configure the simulation model and execute the energy calculation in a versatile manner for any configuration of utility system. To meet these requirements, we developed a new architecture consisting of an energy flow structure data model and an energy state calculation model that can describe the utility system clearly separating the internal state of equipment and the connecting structure between pieces of equipment. For the architecture, we developed a GUI that users can easily customize to any system configuration by a building block method. Moreover, the simulator has an equipment database and energy saving design guidance function that enables users to share tacit knowledge and know-how and to improve analysis efficiency for energy saving design. This paper presents the distinctive functions of the simulator, its realization method, and an example of model expression and analysis for a chilled water supply system.
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Letter
<Information and Communication Technology>
<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Misawa Kasahara, Yasuchika Mori
    2014 Volume 134 Issue 4 Pages 609-610
    Published: 2014
    Released: April 01, 2014
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    We combine D* control and sliding mode control, and design, and build a new D* control rule that correspond to change in side wind disturbance, steering-wheel operation, and the road surface. There is a vehicle to which it runs in a different right and left state of the road. When the sidewind was added from the right side to the vehicle, it simulated it. When the sidewind of a constant velocity of the wind was added on the road where a right and left situation under the wheel was different, a horizontal acceleration and the change in the yaw rate were simulated. As a result, though it did not follow to the target orbit when S is fixation It became possible to make them follow to the target orbit by having used a new control rule. It can be said that the technique for proposing it this time is effective.
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