IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1348-8155
Print ISSN : 0385-4221
ISSN-L : 0385-4221
Volume 136 , Issue 12
Showing 1-38 articles out of 38 articles from the selected issue
Special Issue on “2015 Tokai-Section Joint Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Information, and Related Engineering”
Special Issue Paper
<Electrical and Electronic Circuit, LSI>
  • Yusuke Nozaki, Yoshiya Ikezaki, Masaya Yoshikawa
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1613-1620
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Since Internet of Things (IoT) has been widely used, embedded devices have the risk of illegal attacks. Therefore, lightweight block ciphers, which can be implemented on embedded devices in small area, have been attracted attention as the countermeasure. Simeck is a new lightweight block cipher which can be implemented in the smallest area among lightweight block ciphers. Recently, regarding the security of a cryptographic circuit, the risk of electromagnetic analysis attack has been reported. However, no study of electromagnetic analysis attack for Simeck has been reported. Therefore, this study proposes a new electromagnetic analysis attack for a lightweight block cipher Simeck. The proposed method performs the analysis using double rounds. Moreover, the proposed method performs build-in processing using already known information and realizes the high attack accuracy. To our knowledge, this is the first attack for Simeck. Experiments using an actual device introduce the vulnerability of Simeck and the validity of the proposed method.

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  • Yoshiya Ikezaki, Yusuke Nozaki, Masaya Yoshikawa
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1621-1628
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Smart cards, such as credit cards and cash cards, protect confidential information using cryptographic circuits. Since cryptographic circuits protect confidential information, various attacks often target cryptographic circuits. To attack cryptographic circuits, a method called side-channel attacks has been reported. Side-channel attacks reveal cipher keys by intentionally mixing faults in a cryptographic circuit or by measuring the power consumption of a cryptographic circuit during its operation. A method using a back-check system was reported as a typical countermeasure of the advanced encryption standard (AES) against a fault analysis attack which uses a cryptogram with faults and a correct cryptogram. This study proposes a new power analysis method against a countermeasure with the back-check system. The proposed method utilizes the circuit structure of back-check system for the analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first power analysis attack against countermeasure of fault analysis attack. Experiments using a LSI prove the validity of the proposed method.

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<Information and Communication Technology>
  • Masaaki Shibata, Yoshihiro Ito
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1629-1635
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This paper proposes a novel TCP congestion control based on Quality of Experience for Web services (WebQoE). The proposed method controls congestion window so that a fluctuation of QoS becomes low. In this method, a variance of RTT is estimated by using the fluctuation of QoS. The authors implement the method and QoS evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method can suppress the fluctuation of RTT more than TCP cubic and TCP New reno and confirms the effectiveness of the method.

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  • Naoya Mikamoto, Yoichi Utsunomiya, Takashi Okuda
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1636-1642
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) system provides communication services under the challenging network condition where a communications infrastructure became unusable. In recent years, DTN systems which forward a message by mobile phone users, has attracted attention. In this DTN systems, mobile phone users forward a messages by combining users' physical movement and mobile phone's wireless network technologies. However, mobile phone users' social behavior denial users' communicate and influences the performance of DTN. Now, social behavior is mobile phone users' behavior that denial required communication with other users in order to save own storage/power resources or avoid risk of communications. In this study, we model the DTN system considering users' social behavior, and evaluate the message delivery delay and message delivery rate of the system.

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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Katsuhiko Fuwa, Tomoya Tanaka, Tatsuo Narikiyo
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1643-1652
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    If there exists a stable feedback controller which can stabilize the feedback control system of a plant, this plant is said to be strongly stabilizable and this stable feedback controller is called strongly stabilizing controller. In this paper, a synthesis methodology of the strongly stabilizing controller based on the minimal-order dual observer is studied. The basic idea of our approach for synthesis of the strongly stabilizing controller is to formulate the condition for simultaneous stabilizability of the controller and the feedback control system by using linear matrix inequalities, taking advantage of features of dual observer which can freely assign the closed-loop poles resulting from the output injection. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the synthesis methodology.

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  • Suguru Mototani, Yuya Sako, Kae Doki, Akihiro Torii
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1653-1660
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In this study, we evaluated undersea wireless power transfer (WPT). The characteristics of the undersea WPT are clarified by experiment. A vector network analyzer which obtains scattering parameters (S-parameters) is used in the experiment. Over 10% transmitting efficiency is obtained over a distance of 300 mm which is four times the transmit and receive coil diameter, when the coils are put in individual waterproof sealed cases undersea.

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<Speech and Image Processing, Recognition>
  • Kiyotaka Yamamoto, Harumi Murata, Akio Ogihara, Yoshito Mekada
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1661-1667
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This paper proposes a new regularization term of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for estimating pitch and onset time of electric bass. Both of them are indispensable information for automatic music transcription. However, it is difficult to estimate them from the electric bass performance because of trade-off problem between time resolution and frequency resolution. Applying the NMF simply to the electric bass performance, the correct note and its semitone are sometimes detected simultaneously. The proposed regularization term avoiding such miss detection based on the performance characteristic of the electric bass, that is, two notes are not generally played simultaneously. We define the regularization term in order to keep orthogonality of the adjacent activation decomposed by the NMF. As a result of the experiments using MIDI synthesizer-generated sound of electric bass and real played electric bass sound, it is confirmed that the F-measure of the proposed method is higher than that of comparative method.

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  • Seiya Iwata, Wataru Ohyama, Tetsushi Wakabayashi, Fumitaka Kimura
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1668-1676
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    The authors have conducted studies on Arabic telop recognition to develop a system for video retrieval by keyword to index and edit Arabic broadcast programs received daily and stored in a big database. This paper describes a dedicated OCR for recognizing low resolution telop in video images. A telop recognition system consisting of text line extraction, word segmentation and segmentation-recognition of words is developed and the performance was experimentally evaluated using datasets of frame images extracted from AlJazeera broadcasting programs. Character recognition of moving telop is difficult due to combing noise caused by the interlacing of scan-lines. A technique to detect and eliminate the combing noise to correctly recognize the moving telop is proposed. This paper also proposes a technique based on insertion operation with minimum edit distance between successive two telops to connect them. The method to connect the moving telops is necessary for automatic language translation. The proposed method using edit distance for bi-gram sequence of telops (Method-B) is shown to be robust to recognition error of characters and successfully connect the telops.

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<Information Processing, Software>
  • Atsuko Mutoh, Kota Aratani, Ryumaru Kato, Miwa Sakata, Nobuhiro Inuzuk ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1677-1682
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Active learning has been focused as an active study method in which a student discovers a problem and actively finds the solution. Cooperative learning, in which students work cooperatively in small groups, is one methods of active learning. Working together in a small group to accomplish shared goals is an effective approach to mutual learning and the development of good friendships. In recent years, group composition methods for cooperative learning have drawn the attention of researchers. Although most grouping methods need a preliminary survey to discover information about students, in cases where many students take a lecture at the same time, such as at a university, it is difficult for teachers to know a student's character and ability in advance. In this paper, we propose new grouping strategies for cooperative learning not requiring special surveys. Our proposed methods use a friendship network for students as prior information. We can easily obtain information about a student's friendship network by estimating their friendship from lecture attendance data. We apply our proposed methods to actual cooperative learning activities and observe their effects. Questionnaire results show that satisfaction with the lecture of the students grouped by the proposed methods were higher than that of the students grouped by the conventional method. An analysis of the resulting friendship networks show that students grouped by the proposed methods made more friends than students grouped by a conventional method.

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  • Osami Yamamoto, Kota Ishikawa
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1683-1690
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This paper describes a space segmentation method (SSM)-based algorithm for enumerating all intersections of given line segments on a bounded plane, which is a classical problem in computational geometry. Here, SSM is an algorithm for finding all combinations of input data that generate points satisfying some conditions for a particular space. Assuming that the minimum distance between these points is bounded, the algorithm finds the combinations by recursively segmenting the space. Defining a hierarchical mesh system, we designed an efficient and simple algorithm for the line segment intersection enumeration problem. Although we have been unable to estimate the computational complexity of the algorithm, the performance on random inputs of a program implementing the algorithm was extremely high. It was also faster than an implementation of a well-known algorithm by Bentley and Ottmann(4). Moreover, as our algorithm is quite simple, it can easily be rewritten as a parallel program. In a twelve-threaded environment, such a program ran approximately 2.6 times faster than a single-threaded version of the program.

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Special Issue Letter
<Information and Communication Technology>
  • Yuta Hara, Akitoshi Itai
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1691-1692
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This paper shows a new denoising algorithm based on the outer product expansion with lower norms for the background noise. We have proposed novel source separation methods using the outer product expansion with L1 norm minimization. Effectiveness of outer product expansions for artificial signals and an electromagnetic wave data was represented. However, the denoising performance is decreasing with an increasing of local signals. In this paper, we propose the outer product expansion with lower norms (0.1 ∼ 0.9). Simulation results show that the proposed method produces the accurate background noise reduction.

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Special Issue on “Asian Conference on Information Systems 2014/2015”
Special Issue Paper
<Information and Communication Technology>
  • Salmah Mousbah Zeed Mohammed, Ahamad Tajudin Khader, Mohammed Azmi Al- ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1694-1698
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    SAT problem, also known as a three conjunctive normal form (3-CNF), is an expression where every clause consists of exactly three literals but with the unrestricted number of literals and clauses. The 3-SAT problem is known to be an NP-hard and very difficult to solve. Where to solve the 3-SAT is to find an assignment of true or false to each of the literals in the clauses such that 3-SAT expression is evaluated to true. This study implemented the island model genetic algorithm (Island-based GA) to solve the 3-SAT problem. Hence, the solution involves the novel use of Island-based GA to improve the performance of solving 3-SAT problem. The benchmark SAT problems of four suits (URSAT1, URSAT2, URSAT3, and URSAT4) in SATLIB were used to test the performance of the Island-based GA and were compared with MAEA-SAT and Standard GA (SGA). The Island-based GA obtained good results and performance in solving large-scale SAT problems.

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  • Yuto Lim, Yasuo Tan
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1699-1705
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Smart homes have been vigorously explored for nearly a couple of decades to introduce the concept of networking devices and appliances in the house. In this paper, we present a concept and standardization of smart homes in the ubiquitous system perspective. We introduce the implementation of smart homes, i.e., iHouse, which uses the ECHONET Lite standard specification. The paper also gives overall discussion on a cloud-based smart home platform and its service categories and research challenges.

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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Mohammad Shehab, Ahamad Tajudin Khader, Mohammed Al-Betar
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1706-1711
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), the selection scheme is a pivotal component, where it relies on the fitness value of individuals to apply the Darwinian principle of survival of the fittest. In Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) there is only one place employed the idea of selection scheme in global best operator in which the components of best solution have been selected in the process of deriving the search and used them in generation the upcoming solutions. However, this selection process might be affecting the diversity aspect of PSO since the search infer into the best solution rather than the whole search. In this paper, new selection schemes which replace the global best selection schemes are investigated, comprising fitness-proportional, tournament, linear rank and exponential rank. The proposed selection schemes are individually altered and incorporated in the process of PSO and each adoption is realized as a new PSO variation. The performance of the proposed PSO variations is evaluated. The experimental results using benchmark functions show that the selection schemes directly affect the performance of PSO algorithm. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis of the new PSO variations is analyzed.

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<Media Information, User Interface>
  • Kahori Okamoto, Ryosuke Yamanishi, Mitsunori Matsushita
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1712-1720
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    The goal of this study is to develop an exploratory search system for sound effects (SEs). SEs appreciably influence viewers' impressions of a scene in a movie; thus, SE editors must skillfully select the most appropriate SEs for each scene. Existing SE search methods, however, have three main difficulties involving the diversity of SE purposes, the representation of sound using text, and the conceptualization of SEs for a given scene. These difficulties lead to inefficient SE searches because the SE editor is forced to perform repeated searches. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a framework for SE exploration under multiple perspectives. In the framework, similarities among SEs are provided to the searcher as clues for exploration. The similarities are defined by three types of features: context, acoustic features, and symbol of onomatopoeia. This paper presents the details of the framework, a system developed with the framework, function and interaction provided by the system, and the results of user observation with the system.

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<Softcomputing, Learning>
  • Tomomi Kaneko, Ryoju Hamada, Masahiro Hiji
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1721-1725
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In modern society, innovation, which derives from potential demand and knowledge creation, is one requirement for business success. Potential demand might be found in detailed market research or Big Data because the streets are full of information. However, knowledge creation does not occur incidentally. It also arises from a fusion of knowledge and skill. A methodical system of interpretation for knowledge creation is the i-system. Many applications of knowledge creation are explained by i-systems. However, an i-system alone cannot achieve knowledge creation. The authors have developed Business and Accounting School for Entrepreneurs business games (BASE business games): a participation-type education technique using analogue games. As described herein, the authors attempt to interpret teaching methods with BASE business games using an i-system. Then the authors used “Supply Chain Collaboration Game (SCC game)” and “Supply Chain Collaboration 2 Game (SCC2 game)”, BASE business games, at the School of Management Technology (MT) of Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University in 2014 and 2015. To clarify important factors underlying knowledge creation, the authors attempted to consider comparison of the answer of questionnaire for students from the knowledge creation perspective. Results show that this teaching method unites their knowledge into meaningful experiences and facilitates understanding of knowledge creation as an experience. Furthermore, results confirmed that communication between students is an important factor underlying knowledge creation.

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<Information System, Electronic Commerce>
  • Dung Thuy Nguyen, Chinh Thi Kieu Nguyen, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Michitaka ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1726-1733
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    From the lens of traditional education, teachers teach students and students learn from teachers. The relationship between teachers and students is hierarchical in goods dominant logic. However, according to service dominant logic, in which all economies are service economies, and education is not excluded. With the lens of service logic, professors as teachers in higher education and students are both giver and receiver, and they co-create value to each other. Accordingly, the role of students is dominant in co-creation relationship. In the co-creation process, the goals are significant factors because they are related to motivation of studying. In this work, we focus on the analysis of the co-creation between professors and adult students in an Innovation Management of Service and Technology course (iMOST) in a Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), based on the goals to co-create and the value co-creation of both sides. By identifying the important goals and relationship between the goals and value co-creation, graduate institutes, schools, and faculties could enhance the value co-creation with students.

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  • Shuang Xu, Takashi Yabutani, Michitaka Kosaka
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1734-1741
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This research proposes a new methodology of maximizing service values in business co-creation process. We already proposed KIKI model as a methodology for business co-creation process. However, KIKI model does not consider service value numerically created by co-creation process. In order to improve KIKI model, the service value is caluculated by the inner product of a user's service attribute vector and a provider's service attribute vector in this paper. Then, we apply this methodology to KIKI model. The proposed methodology can proceed the co-creation process maximining service value. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, we analyze the production equipment services for saving energy or generating energy. The service value co-creation process can be described clearly and executed effectively.

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  • Adnan Hamid, Nasuha Lee Abdullah, Rosnah Idrus
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1742-1745
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    This paper is a preliminary study on Open Source Software (OSS) implementation in the Malaysian Public Sector. The objective of the study is to explore the state of OSS implementation among government agencies since the launch of the Malaysian Public Sector OSS Master Plan by the Government of Malaysia on July 16, 2004. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews using open-ended questions were conducted in April 2015 with ICT managers/ICT officers among the selected six government agencies in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aims at investigating the usage of OSS and proprietary software, the level of OSS utilisation, the level of OSS knowledge and training of ICT and non-ICT staff, software development and acquisition model, internal OSS manpower capabilities and skills, user's perception on the advantages of OSS, user's perception on the risks of OSS, and the problems or barriers in OSS implementation. The results of interviews show that there are many problems or barriers in OSS implementation e.g. lack of internal OSS expertise, lack of OSS policy, and lack of top management support.

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<Information Processing, Software>
  • Shinichi Hayashi, Aritoki Takada, Keisuke Hatasaki
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1746-1752
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    For the system providing server SSD (Solid State Drive) cache and volume tiering functions, it is difficult to determine which data to be placed into SSD tier on the basis of the number of I/O (Input/Output). In this paper, we propose a volume tiering method cooperating with the server SSD cache, which counts the number of I/O on the server and allocates storage SSD to read-intensive areas. We conduct an I/O simulation experiment using I/O log traced on the real environment to validate the proposed method. We show that the proposed method reduces I/O average response time by up to 10% compared to the existing method through the I/O simulation experiment.

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  • Chia Yean Lim, Muhammad Rafie Hj. Mohd. Arshad
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1753-1758
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    The ability to correctly understand the context and deliver the exact solution for a critical issue as expected by an agency's stakeholders has been a long-standing problem. This research is motivated to assist the stakeholders to better understand a critical issue by looking into the contextualisation aspects. The proposed contextualisation approach comprises three processes namely the context characterisation, context representation, and context interpretation. At the end of a contextualisation process cycle, a set of consistent triad relationships would be derived to represent the current context of a critical issue. From an experiment that has been conducted with a stakeholder, this proposed approach has proven to be able to help the stakeholders to determine the right context to understand a critical issue. Besides, a case study has also been conducted to prove the ease of use, ease of usefulness, and stakeholder's intention to use of the proposed approach. It is believed that once the proposed approach is conducted in many contextualisation process cycles with the help of machine learning systems and advance analytics tools, it could produce a useful set of contexts for any critical issue in making better decision deliberations and insights.

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Special Issue Letter
<Speech and Image Processing, Recognition>
  • Masao Izumi, Kenji Hashimoto
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1759-1760
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting cooking motion from video and 3D information. Firstly we try to extract certain feature areas which are important for detecting cooking motion from video, such as cooking materials and arms of cooks. In the second step, cooking operation area can be detected, and finally we identify cooking motions such as ‘mixing', ‘heating' and ‘cutting'. The experimental results show the ability of our proposed method.

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Paper
<Electronic Materials and Devices>
  • Hajime Akiyama, Jun Utsumi, Tooru Tanaka, Katsuhiko Saito, Mitsuhiro N ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1761-1766
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    We fabricated a p-ZnTe/n-ZnO heterojunction structure by a direct bonding technology. The surfaces of the p-ZnTe and n-ZnO substrates were activated by low-energy argon-ion bombardment under high vacuum, with keeping their roughness. Continuously, they brought into contact under controlled pressure at room temperature, and annealed in argon atmosphere as post process. Atomic-scale bonding was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was also confirmed that the electric rectifying characteristics depend on the bonding press time and the post anneal temperature.

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<Electrical and Electronic Circuit, LSI>
<Biomedical Engineering>
  • Aya Shirai, Kazuyuki Mito, Naoaki Itakuta, Tota Mizuno
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1773-1778
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    The aim of this study was to evaluate of muscular fatigue by muscle fiber condition velocity (MFCV) and electromyogram amplitude (RMS) during static and dynamic contractions. Ten healthy male volunteers performed isometric and dynamic exercises. Isometric exercises were at elbow joint angle 50°, 90° and 130° during 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Dynamic exercises were at elbow joint angle from 40° to 140° during 40% of MVC and speed was set at 10°/s and 20°/s. Surface EMG signals were measured by using a 15 channel surface electrode array from biceps brachii muscle. As the result, the values of MFCV were decrease with muscular fatigue in static and dynamic contractions and the values of RMS were increase with muscular fatigue in static and bending contraction.

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  • Yuriko Nishikawa, Osamu Fukayama, Takayuki Hoshino, Naondo Takido, Kun ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1779-1784
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Early detection and restraint of peripheral circulatory disturbances is important to improve prognosis of patients with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We propose two indices, ‘peak fluctuation value' and ‘change ratio of blood flow pulse wave velocity' to evaluate peripheral circulatory conditions. Several indices such as ‘pulse wave velocity' and ‘ankle brachial index' have been proposed clinically. However, these indices reflect rather organic changes in the vascular condition. In contrast, our two indices reflect the response of the periodicity and fluctuation of the blood flow in the finger tips when the hand is immersed in cold water and evaluate both organic and functional abnormalities of the peripheral vascular system. Using these indices, it was possible to successfully classify a ‘high-risk group' consisting of patients once diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus from a healthy low-risk group; thus we believe in the feasibility of these indices for the evaluation of peripheral circulatory disturbances.

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  • Yasutaka Kajiwara, Hirotoshi Asano, Shizuka Bando, Shusaku Nomura, Tot ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1785-1790
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    We have examined methods to effectively restrain driver's drowsiness by controlling their nasal skin temperature. In resent years, the various kind of techniques for detecting the drowsiness recently has been proposed. In reality, however, these techniques have the problem which influences driver's operation because they already has suitable sleepiness. In our previous study, not almost all drivers became drowsy by promoting sympathetic nerve activity with the ambient biofeedback system. However two drivers became drowsy. This suggests the possibility that the control is not working well as for their physiological responses. This paper aims to examine biological models depending on several physiological responses. We applied the voltage with the regularity to a thermoelectric element attached to driver's neck and measured their nasal skin temperatures. In addition, we made models for driver's physiological responses by taking advantage of the technologies for system identification such as box-jenkins model, auto-regressive exogenous model, state-space model, output-error model and recursive exogenous auto-regressive moving average model. We evaluated the validity of these models by using the fitting rates and board diagram, with the result that model suitable for each physiological response was box-jenkins under the condition of 15 dimensions and a maximum of 30 seconds. It can be concluded that biological model suitable for each physiological response can be made.

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  • Yuuki Osawa, Kenta Kaneko, Kanchi Ito, Yutaka Kikuchi, Masato Odagaki
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1791-1796
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Bilateral information in primary motor cortices of human cerebral hemispheres is needed to produce simultaneous bilateral limb movement. The corpus callosum connecting homologous areas of cortex between the hemispheres is an important area to exert bilateral finger movements. It is unclear that the movement state of both fingers influences corticospinal excitability involving in contralateral movement. We measured corticospinal excitability during passive movement of both fingers using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the primary motor cortex. The subjects performed passive movement of fingers using servomotors. TMS was applied at the two movement states of maximum flexion and extension position on metacarpophalangeal joint (MP joint) of dominant index finger, respectively. There were three kinds of movement task of symmetry, asymmetry and one-finger movements in this experiment. In one-finger movement task, the highest motor evoked potential (MEP) in electromyogram was measured with TMS timing of maximum extension of MP joint angle. Moreover, MEP with maximum extension of MP joint was lowest in symmetry movement task, but the MEP was conversely lowest with maximum flexion in asymmetry movement task. These results suggested that MEP depended on MP joint angle and the corticospinal excitability was inhibited when contralateral MP joint angle was with maximum extension.

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  • Shoichi Uraminami, Noriaki Sakai, Toshimitsu Oishi, Masafumi Matsumura
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1797-1803
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In Japan, the number of latent patients of OSAHS (obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome) is more than two million. But, only 20% of this number has undergone medical examination for OSAHS. Also, the inspection methods employed are polysomnography and simple polygraphy, which involve several sensors and electrodes and hence cause considerable inconvenience to the patient. To address this issue, in this study, we developed a throat sound measurement system. This system has a contact-type microphone attached to the neck and measures the sound at the time of breath (throat sound). I have already demonstrated that throat sounds are closely correlated with nasal airflow. In this study, I detected apnea-hypopnea using the developed throat sound measurement system. I formulated three methods of automatic detection and termed them "Time Interval of Peaks," "Moving Average," and "Binary Digit." I determined the detection rate and undetection rate of these methods. Six healthy subjects participated in this study. In addition, I examined whether this system automatically detected Apnea-Hypopnea of OSAHS. The analysis results for the healthy subjects showed the combined detection rate of the methods to be 100%. The undetection rates of "Time Interval of Peaks," "Moving Average," and "Binary Digit" were 8.6%, 14.5%, and 10.2%, respectively. Further, with regard to the OSAHS analysis, the combined detection rate of the methods was 100%. The undetection rates of "Time Interval of Peaks" and "Binary Digit" were both 0%. The undetection rate of "Moving Average" was 9.1%. Based on the above-mentioned results, I believe that the developed system is effective in OSAHS detection.

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<Systems, Instrument, Control>
  • Shoichi Okazaki, Toru Watanabe, Masahiro Higuchi, Akiko Watanabe, Tets ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1804-1814
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    A Smart House is watched in order to improve environmental issue and accelerate energy conservation by reducing energy consumption. Smart House technology provides its home owners comfort, security, energy efficiency and convenience at all times. On the other hand, intelligent environment system is advanced with the rapid progress of M2M/IoT and sensing technologies. It is necessary to utilize low energy consumption technology for the implementation of Smart House. Intelligent space system has an ability of monitoring the behavior of a person in house and checking normal behavior or abnormal behavior. This paper proposes an effective communication method in an intelligent space by using energy conservation technology and low energy communication method. We applied the proposed method to a prototype of a watching system for a person living in a remote house, and evaluated the effectiveness of the communication method.

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  • Kiwamu Goto, Hirotoshi Asano, Yasutaka Kajiwara, Shizuka Bando, Tota M ...
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1815-1820
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    Approximately 50% all accidents are due to carelessness. One reason for these carelessness-related accidents is a temporary decrease in the arousal level due to fatigue or mental saturation after a long period of driving. In particular, a high proportion of accidents on national expressways result in death; hence, fatigue-related accidents involving large vehicles are a serious social concern. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the physiological and psychological conditions experienced by drivers comprises an important topic in light of preventative safety and accident prevention. The purpose of this study was to develop an autonomic nervous activity-dependent system to inhibit driver drowsiness. We tested this system through several experiments. This study sought to examine the influence of two thermal skin stimulations (cold and warm stimulations) on drowsiness. The experimental results revealed physiological differences in terms of autonomic nervous system activity. The findings suggest that our method for controlling drowsiness is efficient.

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  • Hiroki Murakami, Masafumi Muraji, Tatsuru Shirafuji
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1821-1826
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    We report a method for recognizing single Japanese sounds including a consonant using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals and membership functions. We focused on six features of the waveforms of four muscles (a total of 24 indexes) and examined the consistency between the sEMG signals and the distribution of each index regarded as membership functions. We also introduced π-type membership functions and confirmed an improvement in the recognition rate (average recognition rate 62.3%, recognition of a series of Japanese syllables 99.1%) by varying the parameter values. These methods allow greater recognition of single Japanese sounds by users.

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  • Wataru Kase, Yuji Shigehiro
    2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 1827-1833
    Published: December 01, 2016
    Released: December 01, 2016
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    In this paper, we will propose the method of pseudo innerizing by state feedback for a given strictly proper transfer function matrix. The method is an extended result for transfer function matrices which have proper left-inverse, and a generalization of inverted interactorizing for minimum phase transfer function matrices. Numerical examples will be also shown to illustrate the presented method.

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